Annals of African Medicine
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   2021| April-June  | Volume 20 | Issue 2  
    Online since June 30, 2021

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Effects of alternate nostril breathing exercise on cardiorespiratory functions in healthy young adults
Iffat Jahan, Momtaz Begum, Shahin Akhter, Md Zakirul Islam, Nusrat Jahan, Nandeeta Samad, Pranta Das, Nor Azlina A. Rahman, Mainul Haque
April-June 2021, 20(2):69-77
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_114_20  PMID:34213471
Introduction: Alternate nostril breathing (ANB) is an effective breathing exercise with therapeutic benefits on cardiorespiratory functions for healthy and diseased individuals. This study was conducted to assess the effects of ANB exercise on cardiorespiratory tasks in healthy adults. Materials and Methods: This randomized experimental study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, Chittagong Medical College, Chattogram, from July 2017 to June 2018. A total of 100 1st-year students, aged between 18 and 20 years, were included by a random sampling method. Fifty participants (25 males and 25 females) were enrolled in the experimental group, while age- and body mass index-matched another 50 participants (25 males and 25 females) served as the control group. Experimental group participants performed ANB exercise for 4 weeks. Cardiorespiratory parameters (pulse rate, blood pressure, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1st s [FEV1], and peak expiratory flow rate [PEFR] were measured. Data were taken at the start and after 4 weeks in both groups. Results: Independent t-test showed no significant differences in the cardiorespiratory functions between the experimental and control groups among the male and female participants, except for the females' PEFR which showed small differences. On the other hand, repeated measure ANOVA shows significant improvement in the experimental groups among males (P < 0.001–0.028) and females (P < 0.001–0.001) in all the cardiorespiratory functions measured, except for the FEV1 and PEFR among males. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that cardiorespiratory functions were improved after breathing exercise, and therefore, ANB can be recommended for increasing cardiorespiratory efficiency.
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Obesity in patients with hypertension attending a medical outpatient clinic in a tertiary health facility in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria
Ijoma Uchenna Nkemdilim, Birinus Adikaibe Ezeala-Adikaibe, Onodugo Obinna Donatus, Okoye Innocent, Nwazor Ernest, Mbadiwe Nkeiruka, Orah-Okpala Chidimma, Onodugo Nkiru Pauline, Anyim Obumneme Benneth
April-June 2021, 20(2):84-91
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_20_20  PMID:34213473
Introduction: The prevalence of obesity is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa which reflects the current global trend. Epidemiological data have consistently shown a strong relationship between obesity and hypertension in Africans, and this association is stronger for central obesity. The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of overweight/obesity among patients living with hypertension in a tertiary hospital in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Medical Out-Patient Clinic of the Enugu State University Teaching Hospital in Enugu, Enugu State, Southeast Nigeria. Data were analyzed using the SPSS version 22. Results: Data were collected from a total of 450 consenting patients, most of whom 64% (288) were females. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 28.9 ± 6.1 kg/m2 higher in females than males (29.8 ± 6.5 kg/m2 vs. 26.7 ± 5.2 kg/m2, P < 0.001). The gender distribution of classes of obesity showed female preponderance. A little more than one-third of the patients were overweight, whereas about four out of every ten patients were obese. While overweight did not differ significantly across gendeWr (P = 0.67), more feWmales than males were significantly obese (P < 0.001). The age distribution of BMI showed increasing rates of underweight and decreasing rate of morbid obesity with age. About 86.8% of the females had substantially increased waist circumference compared to 26.5% of the males. Overall, 53% of the males and 97.6% of the females have abnormal waist circumferences. Waist–hip ratio was equally abnormal in 89.3% of the study population even though no statistically significant difference was observed across gender. Conclusion: Overweight and obesity are common among patients with hypertension as demonstrated in this study. There is need to set up an aspect of health education which specifically sensitizes the public against the untoward consequences of overweight and obesity.
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Clinical profile of patients with diabetes mellitus in gusau, Northwestern, Nigeria
Kabiru Bello Sada, AA Sabir, AM Sakajiki, MT Umar, U Abdullahi, YA Sikiru
April-June 2021, 20(2):78-83
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_16_20  PMID:34213472
Background: There are variable reports of glycemic control and complications among patients living with diabetes mellitus (DM). Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the glycemic control and complications among patients with DM seen at the medical outpatient department of a tertiary health institution in Northwestern Nigeria. Methodology: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of 236 patients attending DM Clinic at Federal Medical Centre Gusau. A questionnaire was administered that contains sociodemographic characteristics of the patients, duration of DM, adherence to management, and complications. Anthropometry, blood pressures, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) were recorded. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results: Eighty-six (36%) males and 150 (64%) females patients with DM were evaluated. Their mean (standard deviation [SD]) age was 53.5 ± 12.3 years with mean (SD) duration of DM of 7.9 ± 6.2 years. The mean FPG was 8.85 ± 3.8 mmol/L (males 8.21 ± 3.6, females 9.49 ± 3.8). Forty-seven (20%), 75 (32%), 113 (48%) of the patients had good, fair, and poor glycemic control, respectively. The major complications observed were peripheral neuropathy (61%) and visual impairment (51%). Glycemic control was significantly better among males and those with good adherence to medications. There was a positive association between the longer duration of DM with complications. Conclusion: Only 20% of our patients achieved good glycemic control and many have complications. Majority of the patients adhered more with medications as compared to dietary management and exercise. There is a need for clinicians to educate patients more on the need for lifestyle modifications.
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Fournier's gangrene: Presentation and predictors of mortality in Zaria, Nigeria
Nasir Oyelowo, Muhammed Ahmed, Ahmad Tijani Lawal, Abdullahi Sudi, Awaisu Mudi Musliu Adetola Tolani, Lovely Fidelis, Ahmad Bello, Husseini Yusuf Maitama
April-June 2021, 20(2):105-110
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_23_20  PMID:34213476
Background: Fournier's gangrene is an infectious urological emergency with associated morbidity and varying rates of mortality in the world. Various predictors of mortality such as advancing age, Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index (FGSI), anatomical extent of the disease, or presence of risk factors have been studied in the literature, though with conflicting results. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the presentation and predictors of mortality in our environment, Nigeria. Patients and Methods: A review of medical records of all the patients managed from April 2012 to December 2018 at a tertiary referral center in Nigeria was conducted. Data on clinical presentation, FGSI, management, and outcome were retrieved and analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive studies using mean and standard deviation were used for continuous variables, Fischer's exact test was used to compare categorical variables among survivors and nonsurvivors, and logistic regression analysis was used to describe the relationships of these variables with mortality. Results: The mean age of the 31 patients was 60 ± 12 years. All were men, with 9 (29.0%) patients without clinical evidence of immunosuppression or predisposing factor (idiopathic). Fourteen (45%) had documented evidence of immunosuppression. All the patients had a polymicrobial infection; however, Escherichia coli was the most common organism cultured seen in 26 (83.9%) patients. The initial empirical antibiotic regimen of choice was a combination of intravenous ceftriaxone and metronidazole in 26 (83.8%) patients and intravenous ciprofloxacin and metronidazole in 5 (16.1%) patients. Mortality was recorded in three patients representing a rate of 9.6%. Anatomical extent of the disease, anemia requiring blood transfusion, severity of infection, and FGSI were all found to be the statistically significant variable of mortality in these patients using the Fischer exact test. Furthermore, on regression analysis only the FGSI and blood transfusion were significant with P < 0.05. Conclusion: Fournier's gangrene is a disease of the older men with a higher mortality rate when the FGSI is >9 or anemia requiring blood transfusion is present.
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Esike's three-brace suture technique for controlling life-threatening postpartum hemorrhage – A report of two cases
Chidi Ochu Uzoma Esike
April-June 2021, 20(2):141-144
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_64_19  PMID:34213483
Postpartum hemorrhage is a great cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide with these effects being worse in developing countries. Uterine atony is the commonest cause. Esike's three brace suture technique is a novel simple but effective method that was used to successfully control life-threatening postpartum hemorrhage due to uterine atony in two women with the preservation of their uterus. Vicryl or chromic catgut 2 was used to apply compression sutures on the atonic uterus. This simple, effective, less invasive, easy to learn uterine-sparing technique is presented for further evaluation and possible wider use in saving the lives of our PPH patients and sparing their uteri.
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Assessment of breastfeeding techniques in Enugu, South-East Nigeria
Obinna C Nduagubam, Ikenna K Ndu, Adaobi Bisi-Onyemaechi, Vivian Ozoemena Onukwuli, Ogechukwu F Amadi, Ifeyinwa B Okeke, Francis N Ogbuka, Osita U Ezenwosu, Chukwunonso C Iheji
April-June 2021, 20(2):98-104
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_22_20  PMID:34213475
Background: Good breastfeeding technique is important in ensuring adequate milk delivery and preventing breastfeeding problems. Exclusive breastfeeding rate is quite low, and requisite skills regarding proper positioning and attachment of an infant while breastfeeding appears lacking among mothers in Nigeria. This study was undertaken to assess breastfeeding techniques of mothers attending the well-child clinics of two tertiary hospitals in southeast Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study of 396 mother and child pairs who attend the well child clinics of two tertiary hospitals in Enugu (Enugu state University Teaching Hospital and University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital) between September 2018 and February 2019. An interviewer administered, well-structured pro forma was used to collect data while mothers were observed closely as they breastfed and scored using the World Health Organization criteria. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 22. Results: Most of the mothers studied (357; 90.2%) attended ante-natal care, and 365 (92.2%) of the deliveries were assisted by a health worker. Only 194 (49%) of mothers practiced good breastfeeding techniques. Maternal age (20–30 years) (P < 0.001, odds ratio [OR] 0.464), attendance to antenatal clinic (P < 0.001; OR 8.336), health education and demonstration on breastfeeding techniques before and after delivery (P = 0.001) and maternal level of education (χ2 = 13.173, P = 0.001) but not parity (P = 0.386; OR 1.192) were significantly associated with good breastfeeding techniques. Conclusion: There are suboptimal breastfeeding techniques among mothers. Increased awareness creation and regular demonstration of breastfeeding techniques are needed.
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Perception to hydroxyurea therapy in patients with sickle cell disease: Report from 3 centers
Kaladada I Korubo, Nkemsinachi Maryanne Onodingene, Helen Chioma Okoye, Hannah E Omunakwe
April-June 2021, 20(2):127-131
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_36_20  PMID:34213480
Background: Hydroxyurea (HU) is an hemoglobin F inducing agent used in the treatment of sickle cell disease (SCD). Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the perception of HU by people living with SCD. Materials and Methods: A pretested questionnaire was self-administered to known cases of SCD attending pediatrics and adult hematology clinics in three participating centers. Mothers of children <18 years responded on their behalf. Results: There were 101 responders, 49 (48.5%) males and 52 (51.5%) females, of which 24 (23.8%) were children <18 years and 77 (76.2%) were adults. The majority (n = 73, 72.3%) knew their phenotype. Up to 63 (62.4%) had crises in the past 3 months. Only 35 (34.7%) had heard of HU, many through their doctor (n = 16, 45.7%), 8 (22.9%) through online resources, and 7 (20%) from friends. Only 12 (11.9%) had been exposed to HU therapy, of which 5 (41.7%) had discontinued therapy mostly due to side effects (n = 2, 40%). The seven patients (58.3%) on continuous HU therapy for a duration of 6 months to over 5 years, all reported reduced hospital admissions and frequency of crises as benefits of the drug, whereas 4 (57.1%) had stopped requiring blood transfusion since starting therapy. Of those who had never taken HU, 53 (52.5%) believed that HU should be used in treating SCD and majority (n = 32, 60.4%) would want to be commenced on the drug. However, 8 (15.1%) would decline therapy (mostly due to perceived associated side effects; n = 4; 50%). Six (11.3%) were unsure if they would want the drug and 7 (13.2%) would have to discuss the decision first with their family. There were 8 (8.9%) responders who did not think HU will be beneficial in SCD and would decline treatment, while 26 (29.2%) were unsure of both the benefits of the drug or of commencing therapy. Conclusion: The findings from this study suggest that HU is beneficial for patients with SCD; however, the awareness of this medication among SCD patients is still low in our environment. Some SCD patients would decline the use of HU due to perceived side effects. We recommend that more awareness on HU be created and coordinated multi-center studies on the efficacy of HU in the Nigerian population be carried out.
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An in vitro evaluation of tensile bond strength of soft liners bonded to different denture base resins
Sangram Kumar Panda, Naveen Reddy, Litto Manual, Chethana Krishna, Kyatsandra Narasimhaiah Jagadeesh, K Saidath, Prashant Babaji
April-June 2021, 20(2):116-120
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_30_20  PMID:34213478
Background: Clinically, adhesion failure is the most critical problem because of the failure of the optimal bond between denture base and the soft liner. Objectives: This study was performed to assess the tensile bond strength of two temporary soft liners to different denture base resins. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight blocks with 16 samples each of heat-cured denture base resin of three different types were fabricated from custom-made stainless steel die after de-waxing mold space. Surface roughening of each acrylic resin specimens which bonds with soft liners was done by abrading the surface and to this temporary soft liners (Perma soft denture liner and Pro soft denture liner) were bonded. The universal testing machine was used to test the tensile strength of bonded space. The results were statistically analyzed using the Statistical Software IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, version 20.0. (Armonk, NY, USA: IBM Corp.) using the Chi-square test, Post hoc Tukey's HSD, and two way ANOVA tests. Results: It was observed that Perma soft was prevalent over Pro-soft denture liner on the basis of tensile bond strength with all three different types of denture base resins. Trevalon HI and acrylic composite exhibited better bond strength results with both Perma soft and GC Pro-soft denture liner as compared to other types of denture base resins. Conclusion: Perma soft had a better bond strength compared to Pro-soft denture liner in bonding modified denture base and conventional resins.
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Restrictive cardiomyopathy: A rare presentation of gaucher disease
Soumi Kundu, Malay Kumar Dasgupta, Biswajit Majumder, Sayan Pradhan
April-June 2021, 20(2):138-140
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_64_18  PMID:34213482
Restrictive cardiomyopathy is an unusual form of cardiomyopathy accounting only for 2%–5% of all pediatric cardiomyopathies. It is mostly idiopathic. Gaucher disease in association with restrictive cardiomyopathy is extremely rare. We herein report a case of cardiac failure in an 8-year-old male child caused by restrictive cardiomyopathy. Pathogenesis of which was attributed to Gaucher disease. In any case of restrictive cardiomyopathy, Gaucher disease should be included in differential diagnosis and investigated accordingly.
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Assessment of health-related quality of life of vesicovaginal fistula patients attending a repair center in Northwest Nigeria
Mansur O Raji, Ismail Abdullateef Raji, Mairo Hassan, Hadija Olaide Raji, Abubakar Mohammad Bashir, Ismail Nazrill Suleiman, Hauwa Ummi Abubakar
April-June 2021, 20(2):132-137
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_35_20  PMID:34213481
Introduction: Vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) has devastating effects on a woman's hygiene, self-esteem, interpersonal relationships, and environment disrupting all elements of her health. Despite VVF being a persistent condition, very few researches have been conducted in Nigeria to determine the quality of life (QoL) of these patients. This study was carried out with the aim of assessing the QoL of VVF patients receiving care in a repair center in Sokoto, Northwest Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was cross-sectional study conducted at a VVF repair center in Sokoto. Study population comprised of patients who had undergone VVF repair at the health facility. The total number of study participants present at the facility was 81, and all were recruited into the study. The study assessed socio-demographics and QoL of the respondents. Data obtained were entered into IBM software package and subsequently analyzed. Level of significance was set at 5%. Results: The environmental domain had the highest mean score of 51.7 ± 11.8 while psychological domain had the least score of 41.3 ± 14.3. The mean overall QoL and general health were 49.5 ± 10.2. There was a moderate positive correlation between physical domain score and Age, (r = 0.258, P < 0.005). There was also a positive correlation between psychological domain score and Husband's educational status (rpb = 0.241, P < 0.05). Social relationship domain score positively correlated with being married (rpb = 0.414, P < 0.01). Conclusion: Older study participants had higher mean scores for physical and psychological domains, while younger study participants had higher overall QoL and general health scores compared with older study participants. Future research should compare the pre and postoperative QoL of women who undergo repair of obstetric fistula.
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Screening for chronic kidney disease in an urban population in Nigeria
Umezurike Hughes Okafor, Obianuju Ogbobe, Nkem Ugwu, Chidinma Nebo, Promise Asogwa
April-June 2021, 20(2):92-97
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_21_20  PMID:34213474
Background: Chronic kidney disease has been reported to be on the increase globally and worse in the developing countries. Early detection has been associated with a better outcome. The objective of the study is to screen for kidney disease and its risk factors in the urban population in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional nonrandomized study of residents of Enugu metropolis of Nigeria. Ethical approval was obtained from the ethical committee of the hospital. The study population was consecutive subjects aged 18 years and above who gave consent to the study. The details of the study were explained to the participants and informed consent obtained. The biodata, relevant clinical parameters, and blood and urine samples were obtained from each participant. The serum creatinine and urine protein of each participant were assessed. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the modification of diet in renal disease epidemiology formula. Kidney disease is defined as eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and/or proteinuria. The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS software version 20. The results were presented in tables and charts as frequencies, mean and standard deviation. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Four hundred and sixty-six participants participated in the study, 77.3% were females with a male: female ratio of 1:3.4. The age range was 18–90 years with a mean of 35.7 ± 12.7 years; 11.8%, 1.3%, and 0.6% had hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and kidney disease, respectively. Systolic blood pressures (BPs) of 140 mmHg and above and diastolic BP of 90 mmHg and above were found in 20% and 18.5% of the participants, respectively. Furthermore, 16.9% of the participants had a random blood glucose >11 mmol/l. The range of serum creatinine was 27.3–1029.1 μmol/l with a median of 69.1umol/l. eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 was found in 6.6% and proteinuria in 18.2%; however, 23.1% of the participants had kidney disease detected by eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and/or proteinuria. Age, male sex, BP, and body mass index were found to have a statistically significant inverse relationship with kidney function. Conclusion: Prevalence of kidney disease in an urban population in Nigeria is high. The risk factors were hypertension, increasing age, male sex, and obesity.
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Public–private partnership in hemodialysis in Nigeria: A comparative analysis of renal centers across three Northwestern states
Hamidu Muhammad Liman, Aminu Muhammad Sakajiki, Muhammad Aliyu Makusidi, Ibrahim Babatunde Isah, Faruk Umar Ahmed, Muazu Galadima, Samaila Musa Yeldu, Bello Magaji Arkilla
April-June 2021, 20(2):121-126
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_34_20  PMID:34213479
Background: Public–private partnership (PPP) in hemodialysis delivery in Nigeria is a new concept. We set out to compare the performance of Specialist Hospital Sokoto's (SHS) renal center operating with this model with four other neighboring government-operated dialysis centers. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the 6-year records (May 2011 to April 2017) of Dialysis Center of SHS, operated under a PPP and compared some performance indicators with four government-operated dialysis centers over the same period. Comparisons were made using Chi-square and corresponding P values were reported accordingly. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: A total of 1167 patients' data were studied. Of these, 252 (21.6%) patients with end-stage renal disease were dialyzed at SHS. The SHS dialysis center experienced 5 months of interruption in dialysis service. Only 38 (15.1%) patients sustained dialysis beyond 90 days and 105 (41.7%) patients had more than three sessions of hemodialysis. Only one patient was referred for kidney transplant from the dialysis center during the review period. SHS performed better than Federal Medical Center and Sir Yahaya Hospitals in terms of service availability, duration on hemodialysis, and greater number of hemodialysis sessions (χ2 = 29.06, df = 3, P < 0.001). Conclusion: PPP has improved the availability of dialysis service, mean duration on dialysis, and mean number of dialysis sessions but did not improve the kidney transplant referral rate at SHS. There is a need to encourage the current arrangement in the Hospital as well as other centers offering similar partnerships.
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Clinical screening for menorrhagia and other bleeding symptoms in Nigerian women
Theresa Ukamaka Nwagha, Helen Chioma Okoye, Angela Ogechukwu Ugwu, Emmanuel Onyebuchi Ugwu
April-June 2021, 20(2):111-115
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_26_20  PMID:34213477
Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of perceived bleeding symptoms in Nigerian women and the usefulness of a simple clinical screening tool for bleeding symptoms. Materials and Methods: A population-based cross-sectional survey of 1524 women of 16–50 years in Southeast Nigeria using a structured, prevalidated, pretested questionnaire was conducted. Results: A total of 1524 (85%) women responded with the mean age of 26 (10.6) years. Prevalence of bleeding symptoms was 24.6% and 11% of the women reported a positive family history of bleeding symptoms. There was a significant association between having a positive family history of bleeding disorder and experiencing bleeding symptoms (adjusted odds ratio: 0.12, 95% confidence interval: 0.06–0.22 P < 0.0001). Two hundred and six women experienced at least one bleeding symptom, 125 (8.2%) experienced at least two, whereas 43 (2.8%) experienced >3 bleeding symptoms. The most common perceived bleeding symptom was heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) present in 83 women (22.2%), 141 (9.3%) reported a past history of HMB, 202 (13.3%) had heavy bleeds during most of their monthly cycle, and 351 (23%) requiring resuscitation with blood support. Conclusion: The prevalence of perceived bleeding symptoms among women is high, and HMB is the most common bleeding symptom. This clinical screening tool is easy and cost-effective in routinely identifying women with bleeding symptoms needing further hemostatic and obstetrics evaluation.
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Panhypopituitarism in acute myocardial infarction
Ritwik Ghosh, Subhankar Chatterjee, Devlina Roy, Souvik Dubey, Carl J Lavie
April-June 2021, 20(2):145-149
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_66_19  PMID:34213484
While hypopituitarism is known to be associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, panhypopituitarism as a complication of myocardial infarction (MI) is very rare. Here, we report a case of rapidly developing empty sella syndrome with florid manifestations of panhypopituitarism after MI (due to critical stenosis in the left anterior descending artery) complicated by cardiogenic shock in a 65-year-old man. The patient was initially stabilized with conservative management of non-ST-elevated MI and cardiogenic shock, but after initial improvement, he again deteriorated with refractory shock (not adequately responding to vasopressors), seizures, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, and metabolic acidosis. After ruling out recurrent cardiogenic shock or other causes of refractory hypotension, panhypopituitarism was diagnosed with the help of hormonal assays and imaging. With no prior evidence of hypopituitarism, we suspect that panhypopituitarism developed due to acute pituitary apoplexy secondary to initial cardiogenic shock. The patient was successfully survived by the emergency endocrine management followed by secondary coronary angioplasty.
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Effect of 3-month therapy with empagliflozin on ambulatory blood pressure and arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Athanasia K Papazafiropoulou, Louisa Mpoumi, Styliani Papantoniou, Maria Rallatou, Stavros Antonopoulos, Andreas Melidonis
April-June 2021, 20(2):154-155
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_19_20  PMID:34213486
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Mediastinal parathyroid adenoma removal by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery
Mohammed Shafi Abdulsalam, Sivagnanasundaram Devanayagam, Rajan Santosham, Vijaya Ganapathy, Maya Menon, Shelley Simon
April-June 2021, 20(2):150-153
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_5_20  PMID:34213485
Ectopic parathyroid adenomas in the mediastinum are rare causes of primary hyperparathyroidism. We report two cases of mediastinal parathyroid adenoma. Functioning parathyroid lesion was localized with the help of nuclear single-photon emission computed tomography scan in both the patients. Video assisted thoracoscopic surgical (VATS) removal of the parathyroid lesions were done. Intraoperative confirmation of parathyroid adenoma was done by frozen section. Further confirmation was done by routine histopathological examination of specimen postoperatively. One patient had left vocal cord paralysis postoperatively. Localization by functional imaging is essential. Minimally invasive methods such as VATS are useful in removing mediastinal parathyroid hyperfunctioning lesions, which carries early postoperative recovery and less complications.
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