Annals of African Medicine
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   2009| April-June  | Volume 8 | Issue 2  
    Online since October 3, 2009

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The use of magnesium sulphate for the treatment of severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia
Jamilu Tukur
April-June 2009, 8(2):76-80
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.56232  PMID:19805935
Background : Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are important causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in the developing countries. There is need to provide the most effective management to pre-eclamptic and eclamptic patients. There is now evidence that magnesium sulphate is the most effective anticonvulsant. Method : In this article , a literature review was made on the contribution of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia to maternal mortality and how it can be curtailed by the use of magnesium sulphate. Results : The drug is administered by the Pritchard or Zuspan regimen, although modifications in the two protocols have been reported. Conclusion : A Nigerian national protocol has been developed on its use. There is need for further training of health workers on how to use this important drug.
  46,234 998 24
Treatment outcomes among pulmonary tuberculosis patients at treatment centers in Ibadan, Nigeria
Akinola A Fatiregun, Abimbola S Ojo, Afolabi E Bamgboye
April-June 2009, 8(2):100-104
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.56237  PMID:19805940
Objective : To assess treatment outcomes and determinants of outcome among tuberculosis patients. Design : A longitudinal study design involving a cohort of sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients at initiation of therapy, who were followed up to the end of treatment at eighth month. Setting : Tuberculosis treatment centers in Ibadan, Nigeria Results : A total of 1,254 patients were followed up with a mean age of 35.0±3.3 years. The percentages of patients with treatment outcomes assessed in the study were as follows: cure (76.6%), failure (8.1%), default (6.6%), transferred out (4.8%), and death (1.9%). The cure rate varied significantly between treatment centers from 40 to 94.4% (P<0.05). The treatment centers located within the specialist health centers at Jericho and the University College Hospital had 50 and 75% cure rates, respectively. The mean age of cured patients was 31.2±3.1 years, which was significantly lower than the mean age of those with poor treatment outcomes (36.7±3.5 years; P<0.05). Males had a higher risk of a poor treatment outcome (RR=1.8; 95% CI: 1.02-1.94) than females. Also, patients with a poor knowledge of tuberculosis had a higher risk of having a poor treatment outcome (RR=1.35; 95% CI: 1.25-1.62) compared to those with a good knowledge. Conclusion : Variations in health center treatment outcomes and poor knowledge of tuberculosis among patients suggest that poor program implementation quality may be a major modifiable determinant of treatment outcomes in our environment.
  16,003 158 17
Vesicovaginal fistula: Do the patients know the cause?
MA Hassan, BA Ekele
April-June 2009, 8(2):122-126
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.56241  PMID:19805944
Background : So much has been written on vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) but there is little on the patients' perspective of the condition. The objectives of this study were to determine the knowledge of patients who have developed VVF on the causes of the fistula and their attitude toward measures that would prevent future occurrence. Methods : The questionnaire-based survey was conducted on VVF patients on admission from June to August 2003 at Maryam Abacha Women and Children Welfare Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria. The case notes of the patients were reviewed after the interview to match the responses from the patients with those documented in the folders. Focus group discussions were held with the maternity staff to ascertain the content and quality of existing counseling. Results : One hundred and thirty patients were studied out of which 121 (93%) had no formal education. Teenagers constituted 37%, while 57% were primiparae. Thirty-five (27%) patients were divorced or separated because of the VVF. There were seven cases of recurrence after a previous successful repair. Prolonged obstructed labor was the cause of the VVF in 110 (85%) patients and 77 (70%) correctly attributed their problem to the prolonged labor. The 33 patients who could not identify the prolonged obstructed labor as the cause either attributed their condition to God/destiny or to the operation that was done to relief the obstruction and therefore would not have hospital delivery in their subsequent pregnancies. From the focus group discussions, it was confirmed that pre and post-operative counseling were inadequate. Conclusion : Even though majority (70%) of the patients knew the cause of their fistula from the health talks, some (32%) would still not change from risky obstetric behavior. Mandatory provision of accurate and appropriate information and education to all VVF patients and their relatives or spouses by trained counselors should be ensured. Such information and education should emphasize the etiology and management of obstetric fistula in order to prevent a recurrence.
  10,403 197 12
The prospect of anatomy as a career choice among clinical year medical students in Nigeria
Oluwatoyin H Onakpoya, Uvie U Onakpoya, Grace E Adereti
April-June 2009, 8(2):90-94
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.56235  PMID:19805938
Background : Medical doctors are potential important source of anatomy teachers. The aim of this study was to determine the choice of anatomy as a career option among medical students in a Nigerian medical school Method : Descriptive survey of second- and third-year medical students using a self-administered questionnaire to asses age, sex, perception of anatomy as a subject, anatomy training experience and choice of anatomy as a career among respondents. Analysis was conducted using the SPSS and statistical significance inferred at P<0.05. Results : Three hundred and fifty three (85.3% response rate) who completely filled questionnaire were returned and analyzed of which 195 (55.2%) were males and 158(44.8%) were females. Their ages ranged between 18 and 37 years with a mean of 22.4 ΁ 9.9 years. Although most students agreed that anatomy was an important subject in medical sciences 346 (98%), they had benefited from anatomy training in their clinical classes 320 (90.7%), and the knowledge of anatomy is useful in investigating patients with certain diseases 251 (71.1%), only 22 (6.2%) would choose anatomy as a career. Male students were more likely to choose anatomy as a career (P=0.026). Textbooks were the most common 334 (94.5%), while radiological means were the least 23 (6.5%) method employed in learning anatomy. Conclusion : Anatomy as a subject is perceived positively by clinical medical students, but the choice as a career option is low; attempt at increasing career interest is needful.
  10,047 80 7
Rising trend and indications of caesarean section at the university of Maiduguri teaching hospital, Nigeria
Ado D Geidam, Bala M Audu, Bello M Kawuwa, Jessy Y Obed
April-June 2009, 8(2):127-132
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.56242  PMID:19805945
Objective : To determine the trend and indications for the use of caesarean delivery in our environment. Method : A retrospective review of the caesarean sections performed at University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital from January 2000 to December 2005 inclusive. Results : During the study period, there were 10,097 deliveries and 1192 caesarean sections giving a caesarean section rate of 11.8%. The major maternal indications were cephalopelvic disproportion (15.5%), previous caesarean section (14.7%), eclampsia (7.2%), failed induction of labor (5.5%), and placenta previa (5.1%). Fetal distress (9.6%), breech presentation (4.7%), fetal macrosomia (4.3%), and pregnancy complicated by multiple fetuses (4.2%) were the major fetal indications. The caesarean section rate showed a steady increase over the years (7.20% in 2000-13.95% in 2005), but yearly analysis of the demographic characteristics, type of caesarean section, and the major indications did not reveal any consistent changes to account for the rising trend except for the increasing frequency of fetal distress as an indication of caesarean section over the years, which was also not statistically significant (c[2] =8.08; P=0.12). The overall perinatal mortality in the study population was found to be 72.7/1000 birth and despite the rising rate of caesarean section, the perinatal outcomes did not improve over the years. Conclusion : Trial of vaginal birth after caesarean section in appropriate cases and use of cardiotocography for continuous fetal heart rate monitoring in labor with confirmation of suspected fetal distress through fetal blood acid--base study are recommended. A prospective study may reveal some of the other reasons for the increasing caesarean section rate.
  7,219 198 20
Use of magnesium sulfate to manage pre-eclampsia and eclampsia in Nigeria: Overcoming the odds
BA Ekele
April-June 2009, 8(2):73-75
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.56231  PMID:19805934
  6,474 246 7
Operative vaginal deliveries in Zaria, Nigeria
SE Adaji, SO Shittu, ST Sule
April-June 2009, 8(2):95-99
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.56236  PMID:19805939
Background : Operative vaginal deliveries are frequent features of obstetrics practice in tertiary levels of care even in developing countries. It is essential to review these practices in order to assess their benefits or otherwise to safe motherhood in resource limited settings Study design : Labor records on operative vaginal delivery cases and matched controls who had spontaneous vaginal deliveries between January 1997 and December 2001 at the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria, were analyzed with respect to mode of delivery, indication for operative vaginal delivery, anesthesia use, fetal 5-min Apgar score, birth weight, fetal, and maternal complications. Results : Of 7,327 deliveries at the center in the study period, 262 (3.6%) were by operative vaginal deliveries. Forceps delivery was most frequently performed (55.7%), while vacuum delivery was found to be in increased use (38.2%). Embryotomy procedures were performed selectively (6.1%). Operative vaginal deliveries were more commonly employed on primigravida (78.6%) compared to multiparas and the most common indication was delayed second stage of labor. Forcep- and vacuum-assisted deliveries were both associated with maternal and newborn complications. There was no significant difference in the use of anesthesia between forceps and vacuum deliveries. Conclusion : Operative vaginal delivery rates in this center are comparable to other centers as are the possible complications. Making these procedures safer will improve safe motherhood in settings where there are performed.
  5,225 126 6
A 5-year review of maternal mortality associated with eclampsia in a tertiary institution in northern Nigeria
Abubakar Ali Kullima, Mohammed Bello Kawuwa, Bala Mohammed Audu, Hadiza Usman, Ado Danazumi Geidam
April-June 2009, 8(2):81-84
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.56233  PMID:19805936
Objective : To determine the incidence of maternal mortality associated with eclampsia and to determine how socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the women influence the deaths. Methodology : Records of 52 eclampsia-related mortalities from January 2003 to December 2007 were reviewed, retrospectively. Their social demography, mode and place of delivery, time of eclampsia, and fetal outcome were extracted for analysis. Results : Eclampsia accounted for 52 (46.4%) of the 112 total maternal deaths recorded within the 5-year period, with case fatality of 22.33%. Age group <20, 20-29 and above 30 all had similar case fatality rate of 22.1%, 23.8% and 26.7%, respectively. Those who were experiencing their first deliveries have the worst deaths recording 42.5% of the case fatality in that category. As expected, unbooked had higher case fatality of 24.0% compared to 15% among booked cases, while those with no formal education also had more death (22.3% case fatality) as compared to 3.3% among those who had some form of formal education. Antepartum eclampsia was the cause in 50% of the death, 11(21.2%) of the pregnancies were not delivered before their death, while 18 (34.6%) were stillbirth. Conclusion : Eclampsia still remains the major cause of maternal mortality in this region resulting from unsupervised pregnancies and deliveries. There is need to educate and encourage the general public for antenatal care and hospital delivery.
  5,017 193 17
Sacrococcygeal teratoma: Clinical characteristics and long-term outcome in Nigerian children
Lohfa B Chirdan, Aba F Uba, Sunday D Pam, Stephen T Edino, Barnabas M Mandong, Oluwabunmi O Chirdan
April-June 2009, 8(2):105-109
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.56238  PMID:19805941
Background/Purpose : The excision of sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) may be associated with significant long-term morbidity for the child. We reviewed our experience with SCT in a tertiary health care facility in a developing country with particular interest on the long-term sequelae. Methods : Between January 1990 and May 2008 inclusive, 38 consecutive children with the diagnosis of SCT were identified from the operation register and the Cancer Registry of the Jos University Teaching Hospital. Their clinical presentation, investigation, operative findings, histology report, and outcome were recorded and analyzed. The long-term follow-up of some of the patients were also recorded and analyzed. Results : There were 31 females and 7 males. Twenty-three patients presented during the neonatal period with a median age at presentation of 7 days (range 1-18 days) and a median weight at presentation of 2.8 kg (range 2.0-3.6kg), 10 presented between 1 month and 12 months, while 5 were older than 1 year at presentation. Most of the patients had significantly external tumors. Excision of the tumor was mainly by the sacral route, four had abdominal-sacral excision. Histology was mainly benign; four were malignant at presentation. Four children with malignant disease had chemotherapy in addition to excision of the tumor. Eight had immediate post-operative wound-related complications while three children died, two of the deaths were related to anesthesia, while one died of colostomy complications. Twenty-one (60%) were followed up for a median duration of 6 years (range 1 month-8 years). Two (9.5%) had recurrent disease after primary excision; five (23.8%) had some degree of functional impairment at the follow-up. Conclusion : While SCT is usually benign, recurrence, malignant transformations in patients who present late and long-term functional sequelae are problems that must be tackled by the care givers. A multi-center study may be necessary to characterize this disease in developing countries and assess the long-term functional sequelae in survivors.
  4,845 202 9
Insecticide-treated nets usage and malaria episodes among boarding students in Zaria, Northern Nigeria
AA Aliyu, M Alti-Mu'azu
April-June 2009, 8(2):85-89
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.56234  PMID:19805937
Background : Despite malaria being the largest public health problem in Africa South of Sahara with over one million associated deaths each year, there has been little progress in its prevention/control during the past decades. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the knowledge, attitude, use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), and the prevalence of malaria episodes among boarding secondary school pupils in Zaria, Nigeria. Methods : A multi-stage sampling technique was used to sample five (5) secondary schools within Zaria, from which six classes (JSS 1 - 3 and SS 1- 3) of respondents were then randomly selected. Structured, closed-ended self-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude, and use of ITNs, reasons for non-use and malaria episodes in last 12 months. Results : A total of 150 students from the five (5) boarding secondary schools were interviewed, majority were in the age group 15-17 (53.3%) with a mean (x) ΁ SD of 16.8 ΁ 0.8 years. Males were 60% and females 40% of respondents. Majority of the respondents (87.3%) knew about and had actually seen an ITN; only 43.3% were current users. Most of the current users of ITN noticed a significant reduction in malaria episodes in the last 12 months. This was statistically significant (P=0.004). Cost and availability were reasons sited by non-ITN users. Conclusion : There is urgent need on the part of all the three tiers of Government for public health awareness campaigns through information, education and communication (IEC) to create positive ITN culture and usage. It is also suggested that ITN usage among boarding school pupils should be incorporated into school health service.
  4,708 176 5
Mobile caecum and ascending colon syndrome in a Nigerian adult
JG Makama, A Ahmed, Y Ukwenya, I Mohammed
April-June 2009, 8(2):133-135
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.56243  PMID:19805946
A mobile caecum and ascending colon is a rare congenital abnormality. Its presentation as a cause of right lower abdominal pain in an adult is usually mis-diagnosed as acute appendicitis. A 42-year-old civil servant presented with a 2-year history of recurrent right lower quadrant pain of the abdomen. The pain was sharp in nature and persistent in the last 2 weeks and centered mainly in the right side of the abdomen. No other associated symptoms were noted. Laboratory investigations did not reveal obvious abnormality. A diagnosis of acute on chronic lower quadrant pain of unknown etiology was made. The patient was resuscitated and had exploratory laparatomy. No abnormalities were found other than the caecum and the whole ascending colon, which were unattached to the posterior peritoneum. Appendectomy and caecopexy, using a lateral peritoneal flap were performed. The diagnosis of mobile caecal syndrome should be considered in patients with chronic right lower quadrant pain, and appendectomy and caecopexy offers a great relief.
  3,644 99 6
Prognosis of non traumatic coma: The role of some socio-economic factors on its outcome in Ibadan, Nigeria
OR Obiako, A Ogunniyi, E Anyebe
April-June 2009, 8(2):115-121
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.56240  PMID:19805943
Background : Coma occurring in the course of an illness, irrespective of cause, traditionally implies a poor prognosis and many factors may determine its outcome. These factors must be identified and possibly stratified in their order of importance. This research seeks to identify these factors and how they influenced the outcome of non-traumatic coma in our environment. Methods : Two hundred consecutive patients, aged 18-79 years who met the inclusion criteria, the Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score of <8, history and physical findings suggestive of medical illness, no head trauma or sedation, were recruited into the study from August 2004 to March 2005 at the University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, after obtaining institutional ethical clearance and consent from patients' guardians. Detailed history of illness including the bio-data and time to present to the hospital and treatments given were noted. Thereafter, the clinical course of the patients was monitored daily for a maximum of 28 days during which the support of the family and/ or the hospital social welfare was evaluated. Results : During the 8-month period of the study, 76% (152) of the patients died while 24% (48) survived. The following factors were associated with high mortality rate: inability to confirm diagnosis (100%), poor family support (97.1%), delay in making a diagnosis within 24 h (85.4%), poor family understanding of disease (84.1%), need for intensive care admission and management (83.3%), poor hospital social welfare support (82.4%), presentation to UCH after 6 h of coma (76.7%), and referral from private health facilities (75.7%). Others include substance abuse (100%) and seropositivity to HIV (96%) and hepatitis B surface antigen (92%) antibodies, among others. Conclusion : This study has demonstrated that socio-economic factors such as gender, occupation, risky lifestyle behaviors, late presentation or referral to hospital, late diagnosis and treatment, and poor family support contributed to poor outcome of nontraumatic coma. It is hoped that improvement, modification, or correction of these factors may improve coma outcome.
  3,172 89 2
Intrapair birthweight discordance in twins
Alphonsus N Onyiriuka
April-June 2009, 8(2):110-114
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.56239  PMID:19805942
Background : Birthweight differences in twin pairs influence their perinatal outcome as well as growth and development. Growth-discordant twins have not been well characterized in our local environment. Objective : To determine the frequency of birthweight discordance in live-born twin pairs and document some factors that may influence it. Methods : In this cross-sectional study, 104 live-born twin pairs were recruited and their intrapair birthweight differences were determined. Twin pairs whose birthweight difference was 15% or more, using the larger infant as the growth standard, were designated as discordant. The maternal age, parity, and birth order of the heavier twin were noted. Results : The prevalence of birthweight discordance was 28.8% when a 15% cut-off point was used but dropped to 9.6% when a 25% cut-off point was applied. Grand multiparity was associated with a significantly increased risk of delivery of discordant twins. Same-sex twin pairs accounted for 60% of all cases of birthweight discordance. Conclusion : Birthweight discordance is common in twin gestations in Benin City, especially among grand multiparous women.
  2,887 116 4
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease presenting with hepatic encephalopathy
Mohammad Alkali, AU Hamidu, Auwal Modu
April-June 2009, 8(2):136-138
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.56244  PMID:19805947
  2,737 100 -