Annals of African Medicine
Home About AAM Editorial board Ahead of print Current Issue Archives Instructions Subscribe Contact us Search Reader Login
Export selected to
Reference Manager
Medlars Format
RefWorks Format
BibTex Format
  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2008| September  | Volume 7 | Issue 3  
    Online since September 22, 2009

  Archives   Previous Issue   Next Issue   Most popular articles   Most cited articles
Hide all abstracts  Show selected abstracts  Export selected to
  Cited Viewed PDF
Factors influencing the pattern of self-medication in an adult Nigerian population
AO Afolabi
September 2008, 7(3):120-127
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.55666  PMID:19253521
Background : Despite the growing research interest in self-medication, little information has been available about its major determinants especially in developing countries. This informed the conduct of this study to determine the major factors that influence the pattern of self medication in a population of market women in Ifako-Ijaiye area of Lagos, Nigeria. Methods : Interviewer administered pretested semistructured questionnaire was used to collect data from 205 market women selected by multistage sampling technique. Results : The patent medicine dealers were the commonest source of information on medications (31.4%) and where they were obtained (52.2%). The exceptions were the educated (62.5%) respondents who obtained theirs from hospitals and pharmacies. Trade and generic names (61.1%) were common means of drug recognition especially among the educated respondents (P<.05). Education of the respondents was the major factor influencing the practice of self-medication though the pattern was descriptively associated with the marital status and educational level of the respondents (P<.05). Benefits of the practice includes in the order: curing of ailments (58.0%), saving time and money (32.0%) and independence of care (7.0%). Conclusion : Literacy and public health education were the major factors influencing the pattern of self-medication among market women. Recommendations on the role of education of market women, patent medicine dealers and the importance of community pharmacy were suggested.
  44 19,356 130
Pott's puffy tumour: A case report
BB Shehu, MR Mahmud
September 2008, 7(3):138-140
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.55663  PMID:19253524
A 10-year-old girl presented with an episode of seizure following osteomyelitis of the frontal bone and subperiosteal abscess due to frontal sinusitis. CT scan confirmed osteomeyelitis of the frontal bone and subperiosteal abscess. At surgery, the subperiosteal abscess and contiguous subdural abscess was drained and sequestrectomy of the affected frontal bone done. Broad spectrum antibiotics and anticonvulsant were given for 4 weeks. The patient recovered without residual problems and has remained well at 5 years of follow up. Pott's puffy tumor is now relatively uncommon and associated seizure is unusual. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is necessary to avoid severe neurological complications and sequelae.
  20 4,717 103
Achalasia: What is the best treatment?
Adamu Ahmed
September 2008, 7(3):141-148
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.55662  PMID:19253525
Background: Achalasia is an infrequent primary motility disorder of the esophagus. Because of uncertain etiology, treatment is only palliative and is directed at decreasing lower esophageal sphincter pressure, improving esophageal emptying and relieving the symptoms of achalasia. Current treatment options include pharmacological, endoscopic and surgical. We undertook a systematic literature review of the management strategies currently available for achalasia. Method: A Medline, PubMed and Cochrane database search was conducted using reference manager 11. Original articles and reviews published in the English literature on the management of achalasia were reviewed. Emphasis was placed on articles published in the last ten years on randomized controlled trials comparing the various forms of treatment. Results: Esophageal manometry is the standard diagnostic evaluation for achalasia. Accurate diagnosis can also be made based on clinical findings and barium esophagogram. Medical treatment with nitrates or calcium channel blockers has variable results in alleviating the symptoms of achalasia but long-term results are disappointing because of tolerance and side effects. Intrasphincteric injection of botulinum toxin, pneumatic dilatation and surgical myotomy are variably effective at controlling the symptoms of achalasia but each modality has specific strength and weaknesses which make their choice suitable in a particular group of patients. While pneumatic dilatation is superior to botulinum toxin injection surgical myotomy provides the best long-term control of symptoms in patients with achalasia. Conclusion: Laparoscopic myotomy should be the initial treatment for most patients with achalasia. Pneumatic dilatation is the most cost-effective alternative but its long-term efficacy is less than that of surgical myotomy. Endoscopic botulinum toxin injection can be considered when other forms of treatment are contraindicated.
  16 10,144 517
Impact of health education on home treatment and prevention of malaria in Jengre, north central Nigeria
OO Chirdan, AI Zoakah, CL Ejembi
September 2008, 7(3):112-119
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.55667  PMID:19253520
Background: Malaria accounts for 1 million deaths among children under five annually. It has been shown that improving home treatment and preventing delays in seeking treatment, by teaching women to respond promptly when their children have fever, can decrease malaria related complications and mortality. This study looks at the impact of health education on knowledge of malaria: its recognition, treatment and prevention among caregivers of children under five in Jengre, North Central Nigeria. Methods: The study was a community based intervention study conducted in three stages: A pre- intervention stage, where 150 caregivers, were selected through a multistage sampling technique from the households containing children under five. Information for the baseline was collected through an interviewer administered semi-structured questionnaire. The intervention consisted of a series of health education sessions designed based on findings from the pre-intervention stage. The post-intervention impact assessment was conducted using a modified version of the questionnaire used in the pre intervention stage. Results: Malaria was recognized as one of the diseases that cause fever in community by all the respondents. Sixty-one (40.6%) had adequate knowledge concerning malaria causation, transmission, prevention and treatment. Twenty eight (56%) of respondents reported Self-treatment. There was a statistically significant relationship between years of formal education and first line treatment option (P=.012). Thirty-four (68%) mothers acted within eight hours of onset of fever. The intervention had an effect on perception (P<.001), knowledge (P<.001), malaria prevention practice (P=.001), first line treatment option (P=.031) and the type of treatment given to the children with fever (P=.048). Conclusion: Health education impacted positively caregivers' knowledge of malaria and their willingness to access antimalarial treatment when their children have fever. Malaria information should be made available to caregivers visiting child welfare clinics. Caregivers should also be integrated into malaria control activities at community level.
  12 6,651 111
Morbidity and mortality among road users in Benin-city, Nigeria
MA Nzegwu, AAF Banjo, W Akhiwu, JU Aligbe, CO Nzegwu
September 2008, 7(3):102-106
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.55669  PMID:19253518
Background/objective: Murray and Krug had reported that road traffic injuries are a major cause of death globally, with disproportionate number occurring in developing counties. Seventy out of 308 deaths that occurred in Benin City from August 2002-July 2003, representing 22.7% of all deaths was due to road traffic injuries. Despite this observation, there is a paucity of data on road traffic morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate patterns of morbidity and mortality among drivers and passengers of cars involved in road traffic accidents in Benin-City Nigeria from August 2002-July 2003 as a base line data. Methods: Eighty-seven car drivers and passengers who were studied were part of a larger study, involved in a road traffic accident and brought to the accident and emergency units of either the University of Benin Teaching Hospital or the State Specialist Hospital between August 2002-July2003.The injured ones were examined and dead patients had autopsy done on them. Results: Over all, out of 283 total accidents cases reviewed in the period of study 87 were car occupants representing 30.7% of all accident cases, and 67 patients (23.7%) sustained varying injuries, while 20 patients (7.1%) died. Commercial cars were involved in majority of cases 85%. Males were also more in number. Intracranial hemorrhage was the predominant cause of death. Conclusion: Occupants of cars accounted for the singular most common category of morbidity and mortality among all road users. The male to female ratio was 2.1:1. Windscreen injuries most commonly associated with facial and head injuries represented the commonest cause of morbidity and mortality. The commonest autopsy finding as cause of death was intra-cranial hemorrhage.
  12 5,010 81
Pattern of epistaxis in Sokoto, Nigeria: A review of 72 cases
KR Iseh, Z Muhammad
September 2008, 7(3):107-111
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.55668  PMID:19253519
Background : Epistaxis remains a common otorhinolaryngological emergency in most hospital emergency departments with varied manifestations. The pattern as seen in a tertiary health institution in sokoto, Nigeria is the subject of this paper. Method : This is a 5year retrospective study (January 1995-December 1999) of all cases of epistaxis presenting at or referred to the Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) Department of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital (UDUTH) Sokoto, Nigeria whose data were analyzed. Results : A total number of 72 cases were seen with epistaxis out of 3,706 new cases seen at the ENT clinic. The incidence of epistaxis amongst UDUTH ENT patients was 19/1000.There were 45males(62.5%) and 27 Females(37.5%) with a male to female ratio of 1.7:1.Their ages ranged between 1and 70 years with the 0-10 age range recording the highest number (26.4%).The commonest cause of epistaxis was idiopathic(29.2%),followed by trauma(27.8%) and hypertension(18.0%).Non surgical methods(97.2%) such as observation alone (34.7%)without active intervention to arrest bleeding, and nasal packing(34.7%),being the commonest intervention measures used to actively arrest bleeding followed by cauterization of the bleeding points(11.1%) were the frequent treatment measures. Surgical extirpation was carried out in 2cases (2.8%) to arrest the epistaxis Conclusion : Although epistaxis is a common otorhinolaryngological emergency and varied in its manifestation, it affects mainly the young people (<30years {62.5%}) in this environment with idiopathic, trauma, and hypertension being the common causes which are amendable to treatment with excellent results.
  11 4,409 76
Prescription pattern of anti-hypertensive drugs in a tertiary health institution in Nigeria
E Etuk, SA Isezuo, A Chika, J Akuche, M Ali
September 2008, 7(3):128-132
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.55665  PMID:19253522
Objective: This study examined the pattern of physicians' prescription of antihypertensive drugs and its possible effects on blood pressure control as well as physicians' compliance with recommended guidelines. Methods: Records of 145 patients aged 17-91 (mean: 52.6±14.6) years, with male to female ratio of 1:1.2 were randomly selected. Information on antihypertensive prescriptions was recorded. Blood pressure control was defined as systolic and diastolic blood pressure less than 140 mm Hg and 90mmHg, respectively. Results: Of the 145 patients studied, 20% (29) were on monotherapy and 80% (116) on combination therapy. Of the patients on combination therapy, 61.2% (71), 33.6% (39) and 5.2% (6) were on 2, 3 and 4 drugs, respectively. Diuretic was the most frequently prescribed drug either as a single agent (44.8%) or as combination therapy (88.8%). Mean reductions in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were more in patients on calcium channel blocker than those on diuretic monotherapy (t=2.5 and 3.6 for reductions in systolic and diastolic BP, respectively; P<.05 for both), and, in patients on combination therapy than those on monotherapy (t=3.64 and 3.27 for reductions in systolic and diastolic BP, respectively; P<.01 for both). Blood pressure control rate was 30.5%. Conclusion: Our results are consistent with the previously observed benefits of antihypertensive combination therapy, and demonstrate an apparent higher efficacy of calcium channel blocker monotherapy than diuretic monotherapy in blood pressure lowering in the study population. Major limitations of this work include its retrospective nature and the inability to determine the actual patients' adherence to therapy.
  11 5,941 121
Kaposi sarcoma: Changing trend in Calabar, south eastern Nigeria
ME Asuquo, A Ogunkeyede, EE Bassey, G Ebughe
September 2008, 7(3):98-101
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.55670  PMID:19253517
Background/objective: Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is now the most frequently reported malignant skin tumour in some areas of Africa and was endemic in Africa before the advent of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The prevalence has increased with the emergence of HIV infection. The objective of this report is to describe the frequency, current clinical pattern, and anatomic distribution of KS in Calabar, south-eastern Nigeria and compare this with total malignant skin tumour. Method: All the patients with histologic diagnosis of KS presenting to the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital from January 2005 and December 2006 were analyzed as part of the wider study of malignant skin tumorus. Diagnosis of HIV was based upon enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results: In our study, there were 11 patients (7 males and 4 females), with a male: female ratio of 1.75: 1. This was the commonest malignant skin tumor (38%) followed by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (34.5%) and the age ranged from 21 - 60 years (mean 42.9years). Nine patients (81.8%) were HIV positive including the 4 females (age ranged from 21 -45 years) and 2(18.2%) HIV negative, aged 59 and 60years. The lower limb was the commonest site (50%). Atypical lesions involved the eyelids/ nose and penis. Conclusion: KS is now the commonest malignant skin tumour in our region with the HIV related KS as the commonest clinical type. Successful prevention and treatment of HIV infection would reduce the prevalence of this tumour.
  11 5,067 56
Sacrococcygeal teratoma in an adult female Nigerian
KN Ozoilo, MG Yilkudi, JA Ede
September 2008, 7(3):149-150
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.55661  PMID:19253526
  3 3,604 48
Role of pre-eclamptic toxaemia or eclampsia in hypertensive women attending cardiac clinic of Ahmadu Bello University teaching hospital Zaria, Nigeria
Albert Imhoagene Oyati, Solomon Sulei Danbauchi, Mohammed Sani Isa, Mohammed Ahmed Alhassan, Bala Garko Sani, Chinasaokwu Amajuoyi Anyiam, Istifanus Bala Bosan, Samuel Olorunfemi David
September 2008, 7(3):133-137
DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.55664  PMID:19253523
Background : Patients with pre-eclampsia and eclampsia constitute a special high risk group for future hypertension. They require a long term follow up to be able to detect and treat emerging hypertension early enough to prevent complications. Unfortunately, this is not so. This study was undertaken to find out the incidence of history of pre-eclamptic toxaemia (PET) in our female hypertensive patients attending cardiac clinic and to also determine the incidence of complications of hypertension in those with previous history of PET. Methods : Fifty consecutive female hypertensive patients seen in cardiac clinic were recruited. Detailed history including full obstetric and family history was taken. A full clinical examination was done including blood pressure and a search for complications of hypertension. Findings were then analyzed and various frequencies determined. Results: Forty-nine patients were studied. The mean age was 47.29±11.46 years. The mean SBP, DBP and MAP were 143.18±25.05, 90.49±14.19 and 108.12±16.71mmHg respectively. Between the last child birth and the time of established hypertension in those who had PET ranged from 3-25 years. Sixteen, (32.7%) of the 49 patients had history of PET and 7(43.75%) of these 16 patients had complications of hypertension. Conclusion: The incidence of history of PET in our female hypertensive patients attending cardiac clinic is significant (32.7%). Also the 43.8% incidence of complications of hypertension seen in those patients with history of PET in this study is high. PET patients, therefore, constitute a special risk group for future hypertension. Therefore collaboration between the Obstetricians and the Cardiologists is important for patients with PET and eclampsia.
  - 3,573 62