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High-resolution computed tomography thorax volumetric assessment in coronavirus disease 2019 patients and correlation with pulmonary function tests

1 Department of Radiology, Institute of Medical Sciences and Sum Hospital, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
2 Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences and Sum Hospital, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

Correspondence Address:
Bikash Parida,
Department of Radiology, Institute of Medical Sciences and Sum Hospital, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar - 751 003, Odisha
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/aam.aam_52_23

Introduction: Years after SARS coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) recovery, residual pulmonary abnormalities may still exist. This brings on the question of whether or not COVID-19 could have comparable late consequences. Structural changes in the lungs after recovery can be better visualized using computed tomography (CT) thorax. Computed Tomography Lung Parenchymal changes during hospitalization by COVID-19 and after 4 months of follow-up to correlate with the volumetric high-resolution computed tomography thorax indices, Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) indices, SpO2, and 6 min Walking Test (6MWT). Materials and Methods: This is a Hospital based cross-sectional study, with a follow-up among 100 Patients from 2020 to 2022. Each patient's different CT parameters and HRCT volumetric indices Normal Lung (NL), Normal Lung Percentage (NL%), Whole Lung (WL) were correlated with the PFT indices (Forced expiratory volume in 1s [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC], FEV1/FVC), Oxygen Saturation (SpO2) and 6-Minute Walking Test (6MWT). Results: The mean NL (L) and NL% during COVID were significantly lower than the mean values 4 months post-COVID. Architectural distortion, bronchiolar dilatation, interstitial thickening, and parenchymal bands were reduced considerably after 4 months post-COVID, compared to during COVID. PFTs results, such as PFT indices, were not significantly different after 4 months post-COVID, compared to during COVID. SpO2 (%) and 6 MWT (m) were significantly increased. During COVID and post-COVID, the values of NL (L) and NL (%) had a significant positive correlation with PFT indices, SpO2, and 6MWT (m). Conclusion: Hence, the different CT indices (NL and NL%) can be used as a surrogate for functional recovery of COVID patients since it correlates with the PFT indices (FEV1 and FEV1/FVC), SpO2, and 6MWT post-COVID. Résumé Introduction: Des années après la guérison du SRAS Covid-19, des anomalies pulmonaires résiduelles peuvent encore exister. Cela amène à se demander si le Covid-19 pourrait ou non avoir des conséquences tardives comparables. Les changements structurels dans les poumons après la récupération peuvent être mieux visualisés à l'aide de CT-Thorax. Étudier les changements CT post-Covid pendant l'hospitalisation et après quatre mois de suivi de l'infection, et corréler les indices volumétriques du thorax HRCT avec les indices des tests de la fonction pulmonaire (PFT), la SpO2 et le test de marche de 6 min (6MWT). Matériels et méthodes: Il s'agit d'une étude transversale en milieu hospitalier, avec un suivi de 100 patients de 2020 à 2022. Les différents paramètres CT et indices volumétriques HRCT de chaque patient Poumon normal (NL), Pourcentage pulmonaire normal (NL%), Les poumons entiers (WL) étaient corrélés avec les indices PFT (volume expiratoire forcé en 1 s [FEV1], capacité vitale forcée [FVC], FEV1/FVC), saturation en oxygène (SpO2) et test de marche de 6 minutes (6MWT). Résultats: Les moyennes NL (L) et NL% pendant le Covid étaient significativement inférieures aux valeurs moyennes 4 mois post-covid. La distorsion architecturale, la dilatation bronchiolaire, l'épaississement interstitiel et les bandes parenchymateuses ont été considérablement réduits après 4 mois post-covid, par rapport à pendant Covid. Les résultats des tests de la fonction pulmonaire, tels que les indices PFT, n'étaient pas significativement différents après 4 mois post-covid, par rapport à pendant Covid. SpO2 (%) et 6 MWT (m) ont été significativement augmentés. Pendant Covid et post-covid, les valeurs de NL (L) et NL (%) avaient une corrélation positive significative avec les indices PFT, SpO2 et 6 MWT (m). Conclusion: Ainsi, les différents indices CT (NL, NL %) peuvent être utilisés comme substitut de la récupération fonctionnelle des patients Covid car ils sont corrélés aux indices PFT (FEV1, FEV1/FVC), SpO2, 6-MWT post-covid. Mots-clés: COVID-19, score CT, HRCT, test de la fonction pulmonaire

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