Annals of African Medicine
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-March 2022
Volume 21 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-105

Online since Friday, March 18, 2022

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Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) transmission through aerosols in restorative and endodontic practice: Strategies for prevention p. 1
Ambar W Raut, Priyatama V Meshram, Radha A Raut
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_67_21  PMID:35313397
Rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in several countries of the world has created a state of public health emergency. COVID-19 is principally a respiratory disease, and the virus is present in respiratory secretions. Oral health-care professionals are susceptible to being infected with the disease since they work in close proximity to patient's face and oral cavity for long period of time. Restorative dentists and endodontists play a significant role in delivering “urgent” or “emergency” dental care to patients. Occupational Safety and Health Administration has categorized dentists performing aerosol-generating treatment procedures at “very high exposure risk” whereas the dentists not performing aerosol-generating procedures at “high exposure risk.” Most of the restorative and endodontic treatment procedures involve generation of aerosols. Owing to the possibility of transmission of virus through aerosols, these procedures may transmit the disease to clinician or other patients. A comprehensive search of literature was conducted with the help of PubMed/MEDLINE and Scopus databases using a combination of terms, “COVID-19,” “severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2,” “aerosols,” “restorative dentistry,” and “endodontics.” Along with universal precautions, some additional precautions need to be taken to prevent such transmission and cross-infection. This article reviews the research evidence about the role of aerosols in the transmission of COVID-19 and various measures which should be implemented during restorative and endodontic practice for the prevention of such transmission.
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Comparative study of acute coronary syndrome in postmenopausal women and age-matched men: A prospective cohort study in Southern India p. 8
Ashwin Kodliwadmath, N Nanda, Bhanu Duggal, Barun Kumar, Debopriyo Mondal, Shashikantha Bhat
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_38_20  PMID:35313398
Background: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) differs in women and men with respect to risk factors, clinical presentation, complications and outcome. The major reason for the differences has been the effect of estrogen which protects women from coronary artery disease (CAD) till menopause. Women develop CAD one decade later than men. Hence, we compared the profile of ACS in postmenopausal women with age-matched men to see, does the difference still exist. Materials and Methods: Comparative prospective study of 50 postmenopausal women as study group and fifty age-matched men as a control group diagnosed with ACS, who were admitted in a medical college hospital from December 2013 to September 2015. Chi-square test and Student's t-test have been used to find the significant association of study parameters between women and men. Results: Chest pain was the main complaint in the majority of the women (76%) and men (88%). Radiation of chest pain (60%) and sweating (72%) were significantly present in men compared to women (24% and 26%, respectively), whereas breathlessness was significantly present in women (40%) compared to men (16%). Women had later presentation to the hospital after symptom onset compared to men. Women had a higher respiratory rate (22.02 cycles/min) compared to men (20 cycles/min) and more crepitations compared to men. Men had more ventricular tachycardia (14%) and intracerebral hemorrhage (4%), whereas women had all other complications more than or same as men and higher in-hospital mortality (14%) compared to men (8%). Conclusion: Postmenopausal women with ACS had more atypical presentation of symptoms, later presentation to hospital, more tachypnea, more crepitations, more complications, and higher in-hospital mortality compared to men of the same age group. The difference in the profile of ACS continues to exist even after menopause and age matching.
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The association of extreme body weight with bone mineral density in Saudi children p. 16
Asmaa A Milyani, Yousof O Kabli, Abdulmoein E Al-Agha
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_58_20  PMID:35313399
Objective: The objective to investigate the effect of extreme body weight; obesity and undernutrition, on bone mineral density (BMD). Methodology: This study is a descriptive cross-sectional study carried between January and June of 2019, and included 224 children and adolescents without any comorbidities or chronic disease. Important data collected included anthropometrics, past medical and surgical history, history of medication intake, level of physical activity and pubertal assessment. Data entry and analysis were conducted using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 24. Results: Gender distribution showed 48.2% were male and 51.8% were female. The mean age was 9.98 ± 3.5 years. Mean weight was 34.89 ± 18.2 kg. Mean BMD z-score was − 1.64 ± 1.4. Weight was considered to significantly correlate with BMD stature at a P = 0.014. Subjects who were underweight showed a lower mean BMD z-score of <−2 than those who were overweight/obese (mean BMD z-score = −1.60). Conclusion: Both extremes of weight are considered a significant risk factor for the development of low BMD in children. We recommend the early recognition of weight aberrations and consequent aggressive intervention with strict lifestyle modifications to promote the development of maximum peak bone mass.
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Safety and efficacy of USG-guided catheter drainage in liver abscesses p. 21
Swati Das, Girendra Shankar, Vedavyas Mohapatra
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_68_20  PMID:35313400
Background: This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of USG-guided percutaneous drainage in liver abscesses of >5 cm. A lot of literature is available on the minimally invasive treatment of liver abscesses since its introduction in the early 1980s. This study focuses on the eastern Indian population and the outcome of treatment of liver abscess of >5 cm by means of catheter drainage and the use of antibiotics. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted on a total of fifty patients over a period of 1 year, 1 month (from June 2017 to June 2018). Only patients with liver abscess with size >5 cm were included in the study. The demographic characteristics; comorbidities; and clinical, radiological, and bacteriological characteristics of liver abscesses in the eastern Indian population and the safety and efficacy of catheter drainage were evaluated. Results: It was found that because of preprocedural empirical antibiotic intake, 70% of the patients had no growth in the pus, whereas 12% had Entamoeba histolytica, 8% had Escherichia coli, and 6% had Klebsiella pneumoniae as the causative agent. The total duration of hospital stay ranged from 3 to 22 days, and the duration of intravenous antibiotics ranged from 1 to 9 days with a clinical success rate of 96% without any drainage-related complications. Conclusion: In contradiction to the earlier belief, percutaneous drainage is a safe and effective means of treatment in liver abscesses of >5 cm with high clinical success rate and reduced duration of intravenous antibiotic requirement as well as hospital stay.
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Treatment outcomes of graded dose of empagliflozin in type-2 diabetes: A real world study p. 26
Deep Dutta, Meha Sharma, Sameer Aggarwal, Anshita Agarwal, Anil Dhall
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_69_20  PMID:35313401
Background: Costs are important cause of therapeutic noncompliance in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Half-tablet empagliflozin (EMPA)-25 mg has lowest monthly cost among all EMPA preparations; data is unavailable on efficacy of half EMPA-25. This study compared real world weight loss and glycaemic outcomes of 10 mg versus 12.5 mg versus 25 mg of EMPA. Methods: Data, retrospectively captured from records of 2 different centresfor patients > 35 years-age having T2DM on EMPA as part of standard pharmacotherapy for T2DM, having > 6 months follow-up data available was analysed. Patients were in 3-groups depending on EMPA dosage: Group 1 on EMPA 10 mg/day (1-tablet EMPA-10), Group-2 on EMPA 12.5 mg/day (half-tablet EMPA-25), and Group 3 on EMPA 25 mg/day (1-tablet EMPA-25). Primary endpoints were glycaemic efficacy and weight-loss. Results: Of 3601 records screened, data from 599 patients (184, 239 and 176 in Group-1, 2 and 3 respectively) was analysed. All 3 groups were comparable with regards to sex, blood pressure, haemoglobin, renal function, medications use. Group-3 were significantly older, had longest diabetes duration, highest HbA1c and lowest body mass index. Glycaemic efficacy was comparable among groups (ΔHbA1c Groups 1-3: −0.9 (−1.9 – 0.0), −1.0 (−1.8 – 0.5) and − 1.0 (−1.5 – 0.22], respectively; P = 0.363). Patients on EMPA 12.5 or 25 mg/d had significantly higher total (−1.4 [−3.0 –0.2] vs. −0.3 [−2.4 – 1.32] kg; P = 0.028) and percent weight-loss (−1.75% [−4.15 – 0.26] vs. −0.44% [−3.11 – 1.39]; P = 0.039), and significantly higherfraction achieving HbA1c < 5.7% (12% vs. 0; P = 0.021), compared to EMPA-10. Conclusion: Half EMPA-25 is the most cost effective way of using EMPA in clinical practice.
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An in vitro evaluation of efficacy of ViaSpan, aloe vera, gatorade solution, and propolis storage media for maintaining the periodontal ligament cell viability p. 34
Rajat Misurya, Sandeep Sharma, Prabu Mahin Syed Ismail, Nitika Gupta, Reshma Rajan, Rasveen Kaur, Prashant Babaji
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_71_20  PMID:35313402
Background: Replantation is a commonly performed method for avulsed tooth. A vital periodontal membrane (periodontal ligament [PDL]) is significant for the successful healing of replanted teeth. Hence, various storage media are used to preserve the viability of periodontal cells before replantation. Objectives: The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of ViaSpan, Aloe vera, Gatorade solution, and propolis storage media for maintaining the PDL cell viability. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 40 recently extracted teeth which were randomly divided into four study storage groups: Group I: ViaSpan, Group II: Aloe vera, Group III: Gatorade solution, and Group IV: Propolis. Later they were subjected to centrifugation, and the cells from supernatant were colored with 0.4% trypan blue for determination of viability. The obtained data were statistically evaluated with SPSS package (21.0 version, Inc.; Chicago, IL, USA) using analysis of variance, Mann–Whitney test, and Post hoc tests. Results: The mean viable periodontal cell in Group I was 30.2 cumm, in Group II was 24.6 cumm, Group III was 14.5 cumm, and Group IV in 31.4. The difference was significant (P < 0.01). Post hoc test between different groups revealed a significant difference in mean viable periodontal cells (P < 0.001). Propolis, ViaSpan, and Aloe vera had higher pH and osmolality values. Conclusion: This study found that propolis had higher periodontal cell viability followed by ViaSpan solution and Aloe vera and least in Gatorade solution. Propolis, ViaSpan, and Aloe vera media can be used as a storage media.
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Dengue seropositivity among blood donors in a tertiary hospital in Kerala, Southern India p. 39
A R Rahul Raj, Nandita Shashindran, Veena Shenoy, Anil Kumar
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_72_20  PMID:35313403
Aim: The aim of this study was to screen blood donors in a tertiary hospital in Kerala for dengue during the period of peak dengue transmission. Materials and Methods: One hundred and seventy-eight continuous serum samples obtained from asymptomatic blood donors during the monsoon season were subjected to ELISA for Dengue NS1 antigen and dengue immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. Results: Dengue IgM antibodies were positive in 20 (11.23%) donors and NS1 antigen was positive in 1 (0.56%) donor. The presence of these markers in asymptomatic blood donors showed that they may have had active or subclinical dengue infection at the time of donation or in the recent past. The presence of NS1 in particular raises the possibility that the donor may have been viremic at the time of donation. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest the risk of transfusion transmission of dengue during the monsoon in Kerala and strengthen the case for dengue screening among blood donors during this period of high incidence.
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Normative data for ulnar nerve conduction and the influence of gender and height on ulnar nerve conduction velocity in healthy Nigerians p. 43
Lukman Femi Owolabi, Abubakar Mohammed Jibo, Aliyu Ibrahim, Shakirah Desola Owolabi, Baffa Adamu Gwaram, Gerald Onwuegbuzie
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_74_20  PMID:35313404
Background: Despite the usefulness of ulnar nerve conduction studies in identifying disorders of ulnar nerves, there is a lack of normative values for the ulnar nerve in Nigerian population. Objective: The objective of the study was to generate normative values for motor and sensory ulnar nerve conduction studies (NCSs) in Nigerian population and to determine the influence of gender and height on ulnar nerve conduction velocity (NCV). Materials and Methods: A total of 200 healthy volunteers were selected after clinical evaluation to exclude common causes of ulnar neuropathy. We carried out NCS of ulnar nerves on all the healthy volunteers according to a standardized protocol. The NCS parameters included in the final analysis were amplitude, latency, NCV, and f-wave latency. Ethical approval was obtained for the study. Results: The mean ulnar nerve sensory velocity was 55.22 ± 5.67 with 2.5 and 97.5 percentile of 46.9 and 70.1, respectively. The mean latency of the ulnar nerve (sensory) was 2.97 ± 0.62 with 2.5 and 97.5 percentile of 2.00 and 4.52, respectively. The mean amplitude of the ulnar nerve (sensory) was 35.56 ± 9.97 with 2.5 and 97.5 percentile of 15.9 and 57.7, respectively). The ulnar NCV was significantly (P = 0.0202) higher in male. Mild inverse correlation (r = 0.2) was found between ulnar NCV and height of the participants (P = 0.0089). Conclusion: In the Nigerian population, normative values of motor and sensory ulnar nerve conduction parameters are similar to the existing values in the literature. The ulnar NCV appeared to be influenced by height and gender.
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Accuracy of ultrasound estimation of fetal weight at term: A comparison of shepard and hadlock methods p. 49
Abalaka A Aye, Teddy E Agida, Akinola A Babalola, Aliyu Y Isah, Nathaniel David Adewole
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_76_20  PMID:35313405
Background: Ultrasound measurement provides a noninvasive means of obtaining information about fetal weight and may help in necessary preparations at and after delivery. Although some ultrasound methods include only one or two fetal indices, others, to improve accuracy, incorporate either three or all the four fetal indices. The aim of this report is to assess the accuracy of two different methods for fetal weight estimation. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study of 170 consecutive pregnant women at term. Ultrasound was used to estimate fetal weight by the Shepard and Hadlock methods, and the actual birth weight (ABW) was determined at birth. The ultrasound-estimated fetal weights (EFWs) and ABW were analyzed. Results: The women were aged 21–42 years (mean 31.3 ± 7 years). The EFW using the Shepard method was 1.9 kg–5.0 kg (mean 3.6 ± 0.5 kg) and 1.8 kg–4.4 kg (mean 3.3 ± 0.4 kg) for Hadlock method, and ABW was 2.0 kg–4.5 kg (mean 3.4 ± 0.5 kg). The mean EFW using the Shepard method was significantly higher than that of ABW (P < 0.001). The Shepard method significantly overestimated macrosomia compared to that by the ABW. There was no significant difference in microsomia rate between the two methods and ABW. Conclusion: The Hadlock method was more accurate at estimating fetal weight compared to the Shepard method and is recommended for the ultrasound estimation of fetal weight in our setting and similar settings.
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Osteoporosis: Is the prevalence increasing in Saudi Arabia p. 54
Mir Sadat-Ali, Jana F AlZamami, Shaykhah N AlNaimi, Dinah A Al-Noaimi, Dakheel A AlDakheel, Hasan N AlSayed, Haifa A Al-Turki, Abdallah S AlOmran
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_79_20  PMID:35313406
Background and Objective: The objective of this analysis is to report from a teaching hospital in eastern Saudi Arabia hospital based prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis. Methods: This is a retrospective study of all patients who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan between January 1, and December 31, 2018, at King Fahd Hospital of the University at Alkhobar, Saudi Arabia. Demographic data of patients, which included age, sex, diabetes mellitus status based on fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin A1C, Vitamin D level, parathormone level, and T score of the neck of femur and lumbar spine was extracted from the Quadrumed patient care system. The data was entered into database and analyzed. Results: Three hundred and one patients had a DXA scan for the year 2018, a jump of 27.2% of requests to diagnose osteoporosis. There were 55 (18.27%) were male and rest females (246). The average age for males was 65.2 ± 10.5 and females 62.9 ± 9.4 years. Using T score of the lumbar spine, 63.6% were osteoporotic in males and 52.8% in females. Conclusions: The hospital-based study shows that the prevalence of osteoporosis has significantly increased in men to 63.6%, while in postmenopausal women to 58.4%, this is high compared to the earlier reports.
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Cholelithiasis in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease: Experience in a resource-limited setting p. 58
Oluwafunmilayo Funke Adeniyi, Adeseye Micheal Akinsete, Emuobor Aghoghor Odeghe, Omodele Abosede Olowoyeye, Ogonna Faustina Okeke, Justina Oyioza Seyi-Olajide, Adebola Akinsulie
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_81_20  PMID:35313407
Background: Sickle cell disease (SCD) remains prevalent in Nigeria and can be complicated by cholelithiasis even in children. There is still a dearth of knowledge about the occurrence of cholelithiasis in these children. The present study is aimed to determine the prevalence of cholelithiasis in pediatric SCD in Lagos and documents relevant socio-demographic and clinical correlates. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of children and adolescents aged 1–19 years with SCD attending the Paediatric Haematology Clinic of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital. One hundred and forty-seven children were consecutively recruited into the study over 3 months and they all had sonographic examination of the gall bladder. The association between cholelithiasis, sociodemographic data, clinical symptoms, laboratory parameters, and the use of hydroxyurea was also documented. Results: The median age (range) of the study participants was 9.0 (1–19) years and majority were males (59.9%). The prevalence of cholelithiasis was 13.6% and the condition was most prevalent in adolescents (21.4%) compared to the younger children (6.5%). All the children with cholelithiasis were asymptomatic. Age and the frequency of crisis were significantly associated with cholelithiasis on multivariate analysis (P = 0.03, 0.045, respectively). The use of hydroxyurea was not significantly related to the occurrence of cholelithiasis. Conclusion: The prevalence of cholelithiasis observed in this study is high. Routine screening of older children and adolescents with SCD, especially with the frequent crisis is suggested. Longitudinal studies to establish the relationship between hydroxyurea and cholelithiasis is also advocated.
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Update on first African clinical trial on earpopper for the treatment of otitis media with effusion [FCT/UATH/HREC/PR/330] p. 65
Titus Sunday Ibekwe, Enoch Auta Dahilo, David Folorunso, Tochukwu Uzochukwu, Bosa I Egbe, Oladeji Raheem Quadri, Damtong Fred, Iboro Etukumana, Basil C Nwankwo, Ibeneche Onyemuchechi Gbujie
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_17_21  PMID:35313408
Background: Otitis media with effusion (OME) is a middle ear condition characterized by the accumulation of serous fluid. It is common, though not exclusive; among children with its attendant developmental consequence if missed or untreated in early life. OME could be managed surgically, pharmacologically, or physiologically. EarPopper is a medical device developed for physiologic management of OME, Eustachian tube dysfunction, and related problems. We aim to ascertain the suitability/efficiency of EarPopper® device for the treatment of OME in our setting. Methodology: This is a prospective interventional study of volunteers diagnosed with OME from four (4) medical centers in Abuja. Pneumatic otoscopy, video-otoscopy, tympanometry, and pure-tone audiometry were done to confirm the diagnosis. Serial EarPopper sessions were performed twice weekly for 2–12 weeks, and outcome was assessed using patients' reports. The reports include the EarPopper scoring system (ESS) and audiometric parameters (before and after therapy). Results: Forty-five patients (17 males and 28 females) aged between 3–56 years were enrolled. Thirty-five were diagnosed with bilateral OME and 10 unilateral. All patients had Type-B tympanometry tracing with mild-to-moderate conductive hearing losses and ESS of between 2.45% and 84%. Out of the 45 participants, 32 (71.1%) completed the treatment, whereas 13 (28.9%) were lost to follow-up. Duration of EarPopper treatment ranged from 2 to 12 weeks. The outcome revealed improvement in 26/32 (81.3%) with significant reduction in ESS (1% to 9.8%). Six patients 6/32 (18.9%) had persistence symptoms. These 18.9% had the propensity to progress to chronic OME. Conclusion: This study highly suggests good prospect in using EarPopper for the management of OME among Africans.
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COVID-19: Challenges and coping strategies in radiology departments in Nigeria p. 71
Olubukola A Omidiji, Omolola Mojisola Atalabi, Elizabeth A Idowu, Aderemi Ishola, Omodele A Olowoyeye, Adeleye Dorcas Omisore, KC Eze, Muhammad S Ahmadu, Ngozi R Dim, Ismail Anas, Adaobi C Ilo, Sidikat A T. Ayodele, Feyisayo Yvonne Daji, Abdulsalam M Yidi, Olubukola Khadija Ajiboye, Kamaldeen O Jimoh, Oluyemisi O Toyobo, Ayesan M Onuwaje, Nicholas Kayode Irurhe, Adekunle O Adeyomoye, Rachael A Akinola, Rasheed Ajani Arogundade
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_76_21  PMID:35313409
Context: COVID-19 came suddenly, bringing to the fore the challenges inherent in the health system. In a developing country, such as Nigeria, which already had myriad problems with funds and equipment in the health sector. Aims: This study aims to examine the challenges encountered by the staff in Radiology facilities and how they combated the challenges. Settings and Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study of radiology facilities in Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: Radiologists from nine government and four private facilities who attended to COVID-19 patients were asked to fill questionnaires on challenges faced and their coping strategies. Responses were sent through E-mail. Statistical Analysis Used: Data from the responses were analyzed using Microsoft excel for Mac 2011 and presented as figures and tables. Results: Majority of the government 7 (77.8%) and private facilities 4 (100%) had no equipment dedicated only to COVID-19 patients. Seven (77.8%) government facilities complained of inadequate staff, poor availability of personal protective equipment (PPEs) 8 (88.9%), and lack of technology for remote viewing 7 (77.8%). Fear of cross-infection was a challenge in one of the facilities 1 (11.1%). Coping strategies adopted include ensuring less traffic in the department by discouraging walk-in patients and canceling non-emergent cases, booking suspected/confirmed cases for lighter times, using old film for face shields and cloth for facemasks, staff education on COVID-19 and preventive measures, and sending reports to physicians through E-mail. Conclusions: There were a lot of challenges during the COVID-19 crisis, with government hospitals experiencing more challenges than private facilities. The challenges included among others inadequate staff strength and lack of technology for remote viewing. Some were overcome using education and by production of facemasks/shields production using recycled materials.
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Reliability of cheiloscopy and dermatoglyphics in hypertension and diabetes. A comparative study p. 77
E V Soma Sekhar Goud, Flora Verma, Madhura Dattatraya Kulkarni, Shivangi Gupta, Basanta Kumar Choudhury, Jagadish P Rajguru
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_91_20  PMID:35313410
Background: Both dermatoglyphic and cheiloscopic patterns are genetically determined. These patterns are known to be associated with type II diabetes or diabetes mellitus and hypertension which are also considered to have genetic influence due to their familial occurrence. Hence, the aim of this study was to compare reliability of both cheiloscopy and dermatoglyphics with hypertension and type II diabetes. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study conducted on 300 study participants. Both cheiloscopic and dermatoglyphic patterns were recorded using validated techniques. Obtained patterns were analyzed and assessed for statistical analysis using the SPSS version 21.0 statistical software. The Chi-square test was used for analyzing the obtained data. Results: In the present study, no statistical correlation was obtained between either dermatoglyphic or cheiloscopic patterns and type II diabetes or hypertension. Conclusion: The present study showed that cheiloscopy or dermatoglyphics cannot be used as a predictive tool for assessing a subject's risk of developing type II diabetes or hypertension. These are contradictory findings, thus emphasizing more research in this area so that these noninvasive techniques can be used as predictive tools for developing essential hypertension or type II diabetes.
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Psychological impact of overweight/obesity among pediatric age group before and during COVID-19 lockdown in Saudi Arabia p. 82
Maha Walid AlNowaiser, Amal Maher Harakati, Reem Medhat Bakraa, Malak Mohammed Alamoudi, Remaz Zuhair Nour, Reema Sulaiman Alhuthayli, Aisha Yaseen Banjer, Abdulmoein Eid AlAgha
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_108_20  PMID:35313411
Objectives: Obesity is a primary public health concern in Saudi Arabia. The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly affected people's lives, putting considerable pressure on children and adolescents, leading to psychological problems. Therefore, we aimed to assess obesity's psychological and behavioral impact among children and adolescents before and during the COVID-19 lockdown in Jeddah. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the pediatric endocrine outpatient clinic at King Abdulaziz University Hospital(KAUH). The sample included 360 participants. Data were collected through clinical interviews by telecommunication from April to June 2020. Demographic factors and answers to questions about behavior, feelings, and daily life (pre and during home quarantine) were assessed against the participants' body mass index (BMI) and reported daily life difficulties. The BMI standard deviation was calculated based on the Center of Disease Control and Prevention standards. Results: Compared to other groups, a significantly higher percentage of overweight/obese participants reported low self-confidence (22.1%), 61.7% reported that their friends or family rarely bullied or picked on them and 66.4% reported that the people who they lived with rarely made fun of or bullied them due to their weight before home quarantine. Conclusion: Children with a higher BMI reported lower self-confidence than their average weight peers before home quarantine. However, a higher BMI did not increase the risk of being bullied by family members and friends. The majority of the participants changed for the worse in every research aspect during quarantine.
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Dental students and COVID 19: An online multinational survey on perception and knowledge p. 91
Pradeep Koppolu, Syed Bilal Tanvir, Amara Swapna Lingam, Muhammad Zakir Noor, Ali Barakat, Mohammed Saleh Alwahibi, Hesham Almoallim, Ali Aqerban, Mohammed Noushad, Fayez Hussain Niazi
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_149_21  PMID:35313412
Background: Coronavirus is an emerging respiratory pathogen that causes coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), as per the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Objective: This study aimed to assess the state of awareness and extent of knowledge about COVID-19 among dental students from India, Pakistan, and Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: The present descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 872 participants from December 2020 to January 2021. Random sampling was performed using an electronic questionnaire. One-way analysis of variance and independent sample t-test were performed to assess and compare the mean knowledge score between different demographic data. Results: Approximately 60% (n = 520) of the responders were women and 40% responders were men (n = 352). The responders were from Saudi Arabia (36.9%; n = 322), India (34.2%; n = 298), and Pakistan (28.8%; n = 252). The difference within the subgroups was statistically nonsignificant (P > 0.05), indicating that dental students of all subparameters possessed equal knowledge on COVID-19. Conclusions: Dental students possess sufficient knowledge about COVID-19, qualifying them at least to work in a medical ward. However, more emphasis must be placed on infection prevention and control policies such as hand hygiene, personal protective equipment, and pre- and postexposure prophylaxis.
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Congenital bilateral iliac vein anomalies in a Nigerian pediatric kidney transplant recipient: A case report and literature review p. 98
Martin Chukwudum Igbokwe, Kester O Maduadi, Olalekan Olayinka Olatise, Abayomi Aremu, Vasanth Revanur
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_39_20  PMID:35313413
The finding of bilateral congenital common iliac vein anomalies is indeed uncommon. This article presents the case of an 11-year-old boy with end-stage renal disease who had kidney transplantation (KT). At presentation, he was found to have a large superficial vein running from the left groin over the suprapubic area. The arterial pulsation of both lower limbs was preserved, and there was no pedal edema. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan revealed aplasia of the right common iliac vein, stenosis of the left common iliac vein, and marked dilatation of the left external and internal iliac veins. There were also varicosity of numerous pelvic veins and a collateral vein draining the right lower limb. This preoperative diagnosis was key to planning for surgery. On KT surgery, the renal allograft vein was anastomosed in an end-to-side fashion to the inferior vena cava and artery to the common iliac artery. The patient had a smooth postoperative recovery and continues to enjoy a normal renal function.
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Double penile fracture without urethral injury presenting after 7 days p. 102
Friday Emeakpor Ogbetere
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_56_20  PMID:35313414
Penile fracture is the sudden rupture of the tunica albuginea of an erect penis due to blunt trauma. It is an uncommon uropathology which characteristically occurs when one or both of the turgid penile corpora cavernosa forcefully snap under an abrupt blunt trauma, usually during an aggressive sexual intercourse or noncoital manipulation. In the majority of cases, diagnosis is clinical. Surgical repair irrespective of the time of presentation results in accelerated recovery, reduced morbidity, and fewer short and long-term complication rates. We report the case of a 35-year-old banker who sustained a bilateral rupture of the tunica albuginea without urethral injury during a heterosexual intercourse. He presented 7 days after the trauma to our facility following the persistence of symptoms despite conservative management with herbal medicine. Following a clinical diagnosis of penile fracture, he had penile exploration under regional anesthesia using a degloving subcoronal incision. He subsequently had repair of both corporal tear after clot evacuation. The postoperative period was uneventful, and he was discharged on the 3rd day after the surgery. He had been followed up for 2 years with good erectile and functional outcomes. This case report reiterates the fact that late presentation is not a barrier to surgical management and good outcome.
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