Annals of African Medicine
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October-December 2021
Volume 20 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 247-315

Online since Friday, December 3, 2021

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

The need and art of establishing skill and simulation centers to strengthen skill-based medical education: Learning insights and experience Highly accessed article p. 247
S Archana, Sathish Raju Nilakantam, Basavanagowdappa Hathur, Melanahalli Dayananda
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_53_20  
Background: Evidence-based medicine seeks to improve medical education, which requires high competency levels in various clinical skills such as examination of patients and execution of clinical techniques on patients by integrating skill and simulation-based teaching and learning as supplementary to traditional methods of bedside clinical teaching. Hence, a safely prepared and controlled environment with trained interdisciplinary teams is very essential in providing such effective medical education to students as well as health-care professionals. The ongoing skill and simulation center project aims to provide teaching, training, and learning in various clinical procedures for both medical students and clinicians. Materials and Methods: The project management cycle framework was used which included the phases of planning, designing, training, and implementation. Having picked the model for the proposed skill and simulation center, that is, redefining medical education with skill and simulation-based teaching, training, and learning, it was decided to establish this skill and simulation center. Results: The functional skill and simulation center unit with the state-of-the-art infrastructure along with a trained multidisciplinary team was achieved. There are also academic programs, which include the demonstration of various clinical and surgical skills and workshops on simulation-based medical education. Conclusion: It was possible to establish a comprehensive skill and simulation center and achieve best practices in medical education by optimal investment in infrastructure and improving the available human resources. Detailed planning is required, across a variety of domains. We hope our experiences shared in this article will help other medical colleges and hospitals across the region, both nationally and globally, toward establishing similar educational facilities.
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Menstrual characteristics of sickle cell disease patients seen at a tertiary institution in North Western Nigeria Highly accessed article p. 255
Amina Mohammed-Durosinlorun, Halima Bello-Manga, Joel Adze, Ifeoma P Ijei, Bature Stephen
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_55_20  
Introduction: The burden of sickle cell disease (SCD) is high in Sub-Saharan Africa, including Nigeria, and with improved care and survival, reproductive health issues, including menstruation, have become increasingly important and may impact on long-term health and social wellbeing. Objectives: This study was carried out to characterize the menstrual characteristics of SCD patients. Methodology: Using a cross-sectional study design, a semi-structured questionnaire was administered and information collected on bio-demographic data, medical history of SCD, reproductive, and menstrual history. Results: One hundred and sixty female patients participated in the study. The mean age was 24.9 years (standard deviation [SD] ± 8.8). The mean age at menarche was 15.6 years (SD ± 2.7) for those menstruating. Most respondents had regular menstrual cycles 120 (82%); normal menstrual cycle lengths 120 (81%) significantly associated with respondent's age (P < 0.05); normal duration of flow 140 (97%); light menstrual flow 104 (71%) significantly associated with body mass index BMI (P < 0.05). Overall, however, 114 (78%) had abnormal menses and 32 (22%) had normal menses. Eighty-one respondents (56%) experienced menstrual pain, which was severe in only 28 cases (35%). The presence of menstrual pain did not significantly affect the annual frequency of crisis (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The mean age at menarche was high at 15.6 years. Most respondents had light menstrual flow and overall abnormal menstrual patterns. Menstrual pain was common but was not significantly associated with the frequency of crisis.
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Prevalence of congenital heart disease among patients with down syndrome in Southwestern Saudi Arabia p. 265
Magaji Garba Taura, Abdullah Mohammed Alshahrani, Dhafer Obeid Alqahtani
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_57_20  
Background: There is a paucity of data on the prevalence and pattern of congenital heart disease (CHD) among patients with Down syndrome (DS) in Bisha, Saudi Arabia. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and patterns of CHD in patients with DS and explore the association of participants' sex with CHD in DS patients. Methodology: A total of 42 patients with confirmed DS were enrolled in the study. Relevant data were obtained from the patients' records. The spectrum of CHD was analyzed and classified accordingly. Pearson's Chi-square was used to determine the association of gender with CHD. Results: Approximately 81% of the study participants had CHD. The most common CHD was atrial septal defect (28.5%), followed by ventricular septal defect (25%), patent ductus arteriosus (16%), and atrioventricular septal defect (14.3%). No significant association was found between CHDs and sex. Conclusion: The prevalence of CHD in the study group was consistent with reports from other regions of Saudi Arabia and globally. Participants' sex was not associated with the occurrence of CHD in DS patients in this study.
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Progress of labor and obstetric outcome in parturients with combined spinal–epidural analgesia for labor: A comparative study p. 270
Mamatha Shivanagappa, Girish Bandigowdanahalli Kumararadhya, Srinivas Hebbal Thammaiah, Akshay Hiruyur Manjunatha Swamy, Nagashree Suhas
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_59_20  
Background: Alleviation of labour pain is known to improve maternal and fetal outcome. Combined Spinal-Epidural (CSE) analgesia is an excellent method. Aim and objectives: In view of reports of its concerns on labour, this study was conducted to evaluate the progress of labour, obstetric outcome in cases with and without CSE analgesia, the maternal pain relief and fetomaternal adverse effects. Materials and methods: In this comparative study, 60 parturients were allocated into case and control groups of 30 each. CSE analgesia was administered utilizing 0.5 ml of 0.125% Levobupivacaine / 0.2% Ropivacaine with 2 mcg/ml fentanyl. Progress of labour was recorded in partogram including duration of labour, mode of delivery, pain relief - Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score, development of motor block, maternal satisfaction and Apgar score. Data was analyzed by Descriptive and Inferential statistics. Results: Mean duration of first and second stage of labour among cases was 530±44.1 minutes, 61.5±12.7 minutes respectively and that of control was 526.6±64.9 minutes, 60±10.8 minutes respectively with no prolongation of labour P > 0.05. CSE analgesia did not alter the mode of delivery P=0.145 with rapid onset of pain relief. Apgar score was normal in both groups. Total 29 (97%) parturients experienced effective labour analgesia following CSE analgesia with VAS score 0. Maternal adverse effects included pruritus, transient initial motor blockade and post spinal headache. Conclusion: CSE analgesia did not affect the duration of labour, mode of delivery with minimal fetomaternal adverse effects and provides rapid onset of pain relief . CSE analgesia can be considered for safe and effective labour analgesia.
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Visual Outcome of Anti-vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Injections at the University College Hospital, Ibadan p. 276
Tunji Sunday Oluleye, Yewande Olubunmi Babalola, Oluwole Majekodunmi, Modupe Ijaduola, Adeyemi Timothy Adewole
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_61_20  
Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the 1-year outcome of intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy in an eye unit in sub-Saharan Africa. Methodology: This retrospective study included 182 eyes of 172 patients managed in the vitreoretinal unit between 2016 and 2019 who were treated with intravitreal anti-VEGF bevacizumab (1.25 mg/0.05 ml) with at least 1 year of follow-up. The outcome measures were change in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) over 1 year of follow-up, the number of injections taken, and complications. Results: The mean age was 61.1 ± 16.3 years (male-to-female ratio of 1:1.1) and about 62.1% above >60 years. A total of 330 injections were given during the period audited. The mean number of injections was 1.8 ± 0.93. Ninety-four (51.7%) eyes had only one injection, while 33 (18.1%), 50 (27.5%), and 5 (2.7%) had 2, 3, and 4 injections, respectively. About 78.5% had moderate-to-severe visual impairment at baseline and 44.5%, 16.4%, 12.6%, and 7.1% at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post injections, respectively. The mean BCVA improved for all eyes from 1.67 ± 0.91 logarithm of minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) at baseline to 1.50 ± 1.27 logMAR at 1 year. The logMAR letters gained was 23 at 1 month and 8.25 at 1 year; the eyes that had three injections gained 10 letters, while those that had one injection gained three letters. Eyes with age-related macular degeneration and idiopathic polypoidal choroidopathy gained 7.5 and 9 letters, respectively, at 1 year after at least three injections. There was a statistically significant association between an increasing number of injections and improved visual outcome (P = 0.043). One patient each developed endophthalmitis (0.6%) and inferior retinal detachment (0.6%) post injection. Conclusion: Visual acuity gain was recorded in patients who had intravitreal anti-VEGF injections in 1 year. It is recommended that patients should have more than one injection.
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Family support and medication adherence among adult type 2 diabetes: Any meeting point? p. 282
Olanrewaju Joel Olagbemide, Olusegun Emmanuel Omosanya, Abayomi Olusola Ayodapo, Segun Matthew Agboola, Adedayo Olutunji Adeagbo, Taiwo Adebayo Olukokun
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_62_20  
Background: Serious disability diabetes mellitus (DM) cause for patients and their support system-family and friends are enormous. It remains an important public health challenge, despite effective medical therapies for its management; patients' poor adherence remains a global problem. Objective: The study assessed the relationship between family support and medication adherence among adult Type 2 DM (T2DM) attending family medicine clinic of a rural tertiary hospital. Methodology: This was an analytic cross-sectional hospital-based study carried out among 367 patients selected by systematic random sampling method. Relevant data collected through a semi-structured questionnaire and clinical data recorded and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) were utilized for the study. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: The mean (standard deviation) age of respondents was 61.7 ± 11.4 years. Those with strong family support that achieved medium/high (Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8 > 6) level of medication adherence (odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 1 6.4 [9.1–29.6], P < 0.001) constituted 69.5% of respondents. Family support was also found to have a direct relationship to glycemic control (FPG < 7.1 mmol/l), 65.7% of those with strong family support achieved good glycemic control, P < 0.001, OR (95% CI) = 17.4 (9.2–37.2). The level of medication adherence was noted to be directly related to glycemic control, 79.4% of those with medium/high medication adherence had good glycemic control, OR (95% CI) = 25.0 (14.4–43.6), P < 0.001. Strong family support leads to higher medication adherence level which resulted into better glycemic control. Conclusion: Family support improves medication adherence and glycemic control. Physicians should explore patients' family support system to improve medication adherence level and better management outcome of chronic diseases especially T2DM.
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Body mass index and its association with various features of migraine: A cross-sectional study from Saudi Arabia p. 288
Danah Aljaafari, Noman Ishaque, Ghadeer Al-Shabeeb, Sukainah Alalwi, Aishah Albakr, Osama Basheir, Reem A Alyoubi, Fahd Alkhamis, Majed Alabdali
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_63_20  
Introduction: Migraine is a highly prevalent condition, and prevalence of obesity is also increasing. Results of studies addressing association of body mass index (BMI) with migraine and its features are conflicting. In this cross-sectional study, we aim to assess association between BMI and various migraine features. Methods: This study was conducted in the Headache Clinic of King Fahd Hospital of University, Al Khobar, Saudi Arabia. Interviews were conducted by three consultant neurologists. Migraine was defined according to the International Headache Society and BMI was calculated as weight (kilograms)/height (m2). Results: Of total of 121 patients, 79% were female. Almost 87.6% of patients were taking prophylactic medications. Majority of patients had attack for more than 24 h (60.3%), pulsating character (81%), moderate-to-severe intensity (92.6%), associated with nausea and/or vomiting (75.2%), and photophobia/phonophobia (91.7%). About 29.8% of patients were normal weight, 28.1% were overweight, and 39.7% were obese and morbidly obese. There was insignificant association between various categories of BMI and features of migraine, that is, unilateral location (P = 0.385), pulsating character (P = 0.571), moderate-to-severe intensity (P = 0.187), nausea and/or vomiting (P = 0.582), and photophobia and/or phonophobia (P = 0.444). Conclusion: In our study, we did not find an association between BMI and various features of migraine.
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Selfie-driven thyroid disease leads: A study on a unique sign and its utility in clinical practice p. 293
Ramakanth Bhargav Panchangam, Sunil Kumar Kota, Sabaretnam Mayilvaganan
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_64_20  
Introduction: Taking a photograph of self alone or with a group called selfie, has become modern-day rage with spurt in smartphone technology. It has catapulted from a hobby into psychiatric ailment, especially among teens and young adults. Although it is considered a psychiatric ailment keeping them aloof from social interactions, we observed an inadvertent advantage in this process. In this context, we present some intriguing findings in this study. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was based on compilation of 14 cases from endocrine surgery outpatient cum inpatient database collected over 2 years' period. The inclusion criteria are the chief complaint (CC) was noted only after watching the selfie picture and not otherwise; the CC leads them to consult physician; the picture was captured by oneself or other person who was also part of that image; and the CC leads to definitive diagnosis of thyroid disease requiring treatment. All other clinical, investigative, and treatment (medical and surgical) were studied. Results: In all, we had 14/5820 (0.0024%) cases meeting the above criteria. CC and later confirmed in pictures were four cases of Grave's disease associated ophthalmopathic exophthalmos, eight cases of goiter, and two cases of facial puffiness (myxedema related). All these CC helped in investigating for the diagnosis of Graves' disease (4), nodular goiter (8), and hypothyroidism (2) confirmed by appropriate investigations. Ten cases underwent thyroidectomy (two of the nodular goiter cases were papillary thyroid cancer) and four cases took conservative medical treatment. Conclusions: Although selfie is considered a modern-day lifestyle-induced psychiatric illness, it can inadvertently help in picking up thyroid diseases in earlier stages.
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Prevalence and risk factors for hepatitis c virus co-infection among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients and effect of hepatitis c virus infection on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome cases at baseline p. 297
Abdulmumini Yakubu, Bello Hali, Abubakar Sadiq Maiyaki
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_65_20  
Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exists as both viruses have the common routes of transmission. HIV infection has adverse effect on the natural history of HCV infection; however, the effect of HCV infection on the natural history of HIV infection is unclear. Materials and Methods: This study was cross-sectional comprising of treatment-naïve adult HIV-infected patients attending clinics at Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto and Specialist Hospital Sokoto. The study participants were screened for HCV anti]body and assayed for transaminases and CD4+ T-lymphocytes count levels. The symptoms of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining illnesses were asked among the study participants. The questionnaire was used for the collection of data, and SPSS software version 20 was used for the analysis of data. Student's t-tests, Pearson's, Chi-square, and Fisher's exact tests were used for the statistical analysis, and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The prevalence of HIV/HCV co-infection was 20.6%. Self-intravenous drugs usage was not statistically significant (P = 0.210). HIV mono-infected patients had significantly lower alanine aminotransferase levels compared to HIV/HCV co-infected study participants (P = 0.048). AIDS status at the baseline was comparable between HIV mono-infected and HIV/HCV co-infected study participants. (P = 0.227; 0.200; 0.130). Conclusion: Moderately high prevalence of HIV/HCV co-infection was observed in the current study. HCV co-infection had no effect on AIDS status at baseline. There is a need for routine screening of HCV infection in HIV-infected individuals.
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Influence of seasonal changes on asthma exacerbation in a sudan savanna region: An analysis of 87 cases p. 302
Aminu Abbas, Juliana U Okpapi, Chibueze H Njoku, Abdallah A Abba, Simeon A Isezuo, Isah M Danasabe
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_66_20  
Background: Asthma accounts for 1 out of every 250 deaths worldwide. Many of these deaths are preventable as they occur as a result of suboptimal long-term medical care and delay in seeking help during severe exacerbation. It is believed that increased concentrations of dust, high winds, low temperatures, and low humidity may cause exacerbation of asthma. Objective: The aim of this study is to assess seasonal variation in asthma exacerbation among patients attending Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto. Materials and Methods: Eighty-seven patients aged 16 years and above with physician-diagnosed asthma were selected by systematic random sampling. Clinical information was obtained from each participant about history of asthma exacerbation and health-care utilization. Meteorological data were obtained from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency corresponding to period of patient's recruitment. Results: Eighty-seven patients comprising 60 females and 27 males aged 32.1 ± 10.8 years participated in the study. Among the study participants, 50.6%, 28.7%, and 20.7% had exacerbation during harmattan, rainy, and dry (hot) seasons, respectively. Correlation analysis shows a significant negative relationship between temperature and asthma exacerbation (r = −0.372, P < 0.01). Conclusion: This study shows that asthma exacerbation is most frequent during the harmattan season and low temperature is associated with its exacerbation.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Solitary peutz–jeghers type hamartoma in a Nigerian: A case report of a rare finding and review of literature p. 307
Aderemi O Oluyemi, Emuobor A Odeghe, Nicholas A Awolola
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_37_20  
Background: We report a case of solitary Peutz–Jeghers (P-J) type hamartomatous polyp in the sigmoid colon of an asymptomatic Nigerian without other diagnostic criteria for full-blown P-J syndrome. Case Report: During colonoscopy for a 58-year-old man, a solitary, pedunculated polyp was seen in the sigmoid colon. Histopathological examination of the endoscopically resected mass revealed the classical features of P-J type hamartoma. A search for lentigines on the skin or mucous buccal membranes was negative. There is no family history of such findings. Conclusion: The case here presented is truly rare as a review of the scientific literature appears, to the best of our knowledge, not to contain such a unique presentation from our locality nor indeed from among Black Africans. We conducted a review of the literature and wished to highlight the evolving concept that solitary P-J polyps be considered a distinct disease entity when it appears in the absence of other features of the syndrome complex.
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Laparoscopic appendicectomy in a postpneumonectomy patient p. 310
Neeta Santha, Lekshmipriya Govind, Shilpa Naik
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_51_20  
Pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic surgeries has anesthetic implications due to increase in the intra-abdominal pressure and end-tidal carbon dioxide. The effects are more pronounced if the patient has only one lung. However, the advantages of laparoscopy include reduced postoperative pain and early recovery. We present a case of 30-year-old patient who had undergone pneumonectomy and was posted for laparoscopic appendicectomy. General anesthesia was instituted, and with some modifications in ventilation, the procedure was uneventful and we were able to extubate the patient on the table. Understanding of the physiological consequences of pneumonectomy facilitated the provision of safe anesthesia.
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Anesthetic management of a patient presenting with huge neck lymphatic cyst p. 313
Neeta Santha, Preethi Dhamotharan, Sheikh Gulam Osmani
DOI:10.4103/aam.aam_52_20  
Lymphatic cyst in the cervical region presents a great challenge to the anesthesiologist. The anesthetic difficulties are because of the extension of the cyst, difficult airway, postoperative respiratory obstruction, and coexisting anomalies. The management of such patients depends on direct communication between the surgeon and anesthesiologist. We hereby present a case of a 53-year-old male presenting with lymphatic cyst of the cervicothoracic region with dysphagia and dyspnea, posted for direct laryngoscopy and biopsy under general anesthesia. Awake fiberoptic intubation was done in this patient successfully in spite of totally distorted airway anatomy.
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