Annals of African Medicine
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Year : 2023  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 77-81

Nontubercular bacterial and fungal infections in patients of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

1 Department of Medicine, K.G.M.U., Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Respiratory Medicine, K.G.M.U., Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Shyam Chand Chaudhary
Department of Medicine, K.G.M.U., Lucknow - 226 016, Uttar Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/aam.aam_186_21

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Introduction: Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), frequently due to respiratory tract infection is the major cause of morbidity and mortality, and estimate suggests that it is currently the third leading cause of death worldwide. Aims and Objectives: This study aims to study the prevalence of nontubercular bacterial and fungal infections in patients of COPD. Materials and Methods: It is an observational study done for 1-year period from August 2017 to July 2018. A total of 100 COPD patients who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were analyzed in the present study. These cases were classified according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) combined assessment criteria and subjected to sputum or in some cases Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid examination for nontubercular bacterial and fungal pathogens. Serum galactomannan assay, bronchoscopy, and computed tomography chest were done in selected cases. Results: The age of the study population ranged from 40 to 85 years and the mean age was 60.01 ± 9.85 years. Majority of the patients were male (81.0%) and most (78.0%) of them were smokers. Most of the patients belonged to GOLD Grades 2 and 3. Forty-six percent of the patients did show pathogenic organisms in sputum examination. Out of these, 80.4% were bacterial, mainly Gram-negative organisms (Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter, Proteus, and Citrobacter) and 19.6% of cases were having fungal infections (Candida and Aspergillus). Conclusions: Increasing patient age, smoking habit, and severity of COPD were related to an increasing frequency of bacterial and fungal infections. Early detection and proper treatment could help in preventing the morbidity and mortality related to COPD.

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