Annals of African Medicine
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 21  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 383-389

A study of rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis with COVID-19: A new challenge in North West of Rajasthan


1 Department of Medicine, S P Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India
2 Department of Emergency Medicine, S P Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India

Correspondence Address:
Harish Kumar
B-3 Shastri Nagar, Bikaner - 334 001, Rajasthan
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/aam.aam_129_21

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Background: Mucormycosis is a life-threatening fungal disease in immunocompromised patients. There has been increase in the number of mucormycosis associated with COVID-19 patients in second wave. Now country battle with both COVID-19 and mucormycosis. An invasive mucormycosis infection has been a significant burden in India after COVID-19. It has been recently emerged a notifiable disease by the Rajasthan government. Our aim is to develop awareness regarding the importance of early detection and treatment of mucormycosis with COVID-19 and reduce the morbidity and mortality. Materials and Methods: This is a Prospective longitudinal study including 34 patients diagnosed with acute invasive fungal infection by contrast enhancement magnetic resonance imaging studies of paranasal, orbit and brain or nasal biopsy for KOH/culture. Diagnosis is made through routine blood tests, biopsy, and radiological imaging. The patients taken for the study were COVID-19 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction positive or recent post COVID-19 (within 15 days) or symptoms of COVID-19 with bilateral pneumonitis. The study was conducted with 34 patients admitted to the department of medicine with mucormycosis within a month may 2021. Results: A total of 34 patients with a mean age of 50.92 years old and male female ratio 24/10 (70.5/29.41) were included in this study. The most common comorbidity was diabetes mellitus (23 patients 67.64%). Nine patients were newly diagnosed or recent onset of diabetes with or after COVID-19 infection. Twenty-four (70.58%) patients were COVID-19 positive or recent (within 15 days) history of COVID-19 positive. Seven (20.58) patients had the history of steroid as a treatment during COVID-19 and 5 (14.70) patients was on oxygen inhalation. One (2.94%) patient was fully vaccinated, and 5 (14.70) patients had the history of steam inhalation. The most common involvement was naso-orbital mucormycosis found in 28 patients (82.35%) followed by nasal-and orbital 26 (76.47) and 18 (52.94), respectively. Naso-Orbito-Cerebral was seen in 16 (47.05) patients. The more common reported symptoms and signs were headache (76.47), facial numbness (64.70), Nasal discharge (52.94), and ophthalmoplegia (52.94). Cranial nerve involvement was seen in 10 patients (facial palsy in 8 patients and bulbar palsy in 2 patients). Total mortality was 7 (7/34 20.58%). Conclusion: COVID-19 infection associated with the wide range of invasive mucormycosis. Early diagnosis and Clinical suspicion of acute invasive fungal sinusitis among COVID-19 patients is essential for better outcomes and higher survival.


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