Annals of African Medicine
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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 21  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 262-268

Endoscopy for upper gastrointestinal bleeding in a tertiary hospital in Kaduna, North-West Nigeria: Experience and findings

Endoscopy Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Barau Dikko Teaching Hospital/Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Husain Yahya
Department of Internal Medicine, Barau Dikko Teaching Hospital, P. O. Box: 9727, Kaduna
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/aam.aam_64_21

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Background: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a common medical emergency and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE) makes diagnosis and treatment possible; performing this procedure within 24 h of bleeding is considered the standard of care for managing this condition. Access to upper endoscopy improves the prognosis of the disease. Methods: We present our experience and findings of performing UGIE in patients referred for UGIB to a new endoscopy unit in a tertiary center in North-West Nigeria. The age, gender, reasons for referral, interval between endoscopy, and last known episode of bleeding and endoscopic findings were obtained from endoscopy records. Results: We performed UGIE in 204 patients for UGIB over a 7-year period: Mean age 45.5 years (range 10–88 years), 61.8% male, 54.8% <50 years. Most patients (81.3%) had endoscopy seven or more days after the last known episode of bleeding and none had endoscopy within 24 h. Esophageal and gastric varices were found in almost 30% of patients while peptic ulcer disease was found in 23%. Portal hypertensive gastropathy was found in 12.7% of patients all of whom also had esophageal or gastric varices. Gastric mucosal erosions (7.4%) and gastric malignancy (6.4%) were other notable findings. No significant abnormalities were detected in 11.8% of patients. Conclusion: Bleeding from esophageal/gastric varices and peptic ulcer disease were the most common finding in our patients. There was delay in performing endoscopy and improving access and training for endoscopy will go a long way in addressing some of the challenges we identified.

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