Annals of African Medicine
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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 105-110

Fournier's gangrene: Presentation and predictors of mortality in Zaria, Nigeria

Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Nasir Oyelowo
Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/aam.aam_23_20

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Background: Fournier's gangrene is an infectious urological emergency with associated morbidity and varying rates of mortality in the world. Various predictors of mortality such as advancing age, Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index (FGSI), anatomical extent of the disease, or presence of risk factors have been studied in the literature, though with conflicting results. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the presentation and predictors of mortality in our environment, Nigeria. Patients and Methods: A review of medical records of all the patients managed from April 2012 to December 2018 at a tertiary referral center in Nigeria was conducted. Data on clinical presentation, FGSI, management, and outcome were retrieved and analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive studies using mean and standard deviation were used for continuous variables, Fischer's exact test was used to compare categorical variables among survivors and nonsurvivors, and logistic regression analysis was used to describe the relationships of these variables with mortality. Results: The mean age of the 31 patients was 60 ± 12 years. All were men, with 9 (29.0%) patients without clinical evidence of immunosuppression or predisposing factor (idiopathic). Fourteen (45%) had documented evidence of immunosuppression. All the patients had a polymicrobial infection; however, Escherichia coli was the most common organism cultured seen in 26 (83.9%) patients. The initial empirical antibiotic regimen of choice was a combination of intravenous ceftriaxone and metronidazole in 26 (83.8%) patients and intravenous ciprofloxacin and metronidazole in 5 (16.1%) patients. Mortality was recorded in three patients representing a rate of 9.6%. Anatomical extent of the disease, anemia requiring blood transfusion, severity of infection, and FGSI were all found to be the statistically significant variable of mortality in these patients using the Fischer exact test. Furthermore, on regression analysis only the FGSI and blood transfusion were significant with P < 0.05. Conclusion: Fournier's gangrene is a disease of the older men with a higher mortality rate when the FGSI is >9 or anemia requiring blood transfusion is present.

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