Annals of African Medicine
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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 19-23

The profile of autoimmunity in Type 1 diabetes patients

1 Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Nutrition, Military Hospital Moulay Ismail, Meknes; Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah, Fez, Morocco
2 Department of Clinical Research and Community Health Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah, Fez, Morocco

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sara Derrou
Military Hospital Moulay Ismail, Meknes 50000
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/aam.aam_8_20

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Background: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disorder caused by pancreatic β-cells destruction. Anti-pancreatic antibodies are the witness of β-cell destruction and their dosage is mainly used for etiological diagnosis. Patients with T1DM are at increased risk of developing other autoimmune reactions, which may involve other organs, resulting in organ specific autoimmune disease. The most frequently encountered are autoimmune thyroid disease, followed by celiac and gastric disease and other rare autoimmune diseases. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of autoimmune markers in patients with T1DM. Methods: The study was conducted at the Department of Endocrinology of the Military Hospital Moulay Ismail in Meknes Morocco, from January 2016 to December 2018. All Type 1 diabetes patients consulting during the study period were included in the study. Their clinical and biochemical data were collected at their first presentation, made up of anti-pancreatic antibodies (glutamic acid decarboxylase [GAD] antibody, tyrosine phosphatase antibody, and islet cell antibody) and other organ-specific antibodies: the thyroid (antithyroid peroxidase antibody, antithyroglobulin antibody, and antithyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody), the intestine (IgA antitissue transglutaminase antibody), the adrenal gland (anti-21 hydroxylase antibody), and the stomach (antigastric parietal cell antibody and anti-intrinsic factor antibody). Results: Fifty-four patients were included, with an average age of 26 years. GAD, tyrosine phosphatase, and islet cell antibodies were detected in 74%, 22%, and 3.7%, respectively, of the 54 patients examined. The prevalence of extrapancreatic autoimmunity was 45% with a large preponderance among different immunities of those from thyroid and celiac diseases (CDs). Conclusion: Our results confirm that patients with Type 1 diabetes should be investigated for the presence of autoimmune diseases mainly from thyroid and CDs.

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