Annals of African Medicine
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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 75-79

Epistaxis: The demographics, etiology, management, and predictors of outcome in Jos, North-Central Nigeria

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Adeyi A Adoga
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Plateau State
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/aam.aam_24_18

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Background: Epistaxis, though a mere nuisance can have life-threatening consequences. This first study from Jos on epistaxis aims to determine its sociodemographic characteristics, causes, the treatment modalities and the predictors of patient outcome. Study Design: A retrospective chart review. Methods: Health records of patients that met the inclusion criteria for epistaxis at the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria, between February 2011 and December 2015 were retrieved manually using standardized codes in the International Classification of Diseases 10th revision and studied for age, gender, associated comorbidities, treatment modalities offered, and outcome of treatment. Results: We managed 154 patients. Records of 92 patients were retrievable aged between 1 and 85 years (Mean = 37.7; standard deviation ± 16.2) with male to female ratio of 2.3:1. Patients in the third decade were the largest group. The most common cause was idiopathic. Anterior nasal bleeding occurred in 51.1%, posterior nasal bleeding in 34.8%. Conservative management was effective in 84.8%. Etiological factors other than chronic liver disease and otolaryngological malignancies showed statistically significant association with good patient outcomes (P = 0.013, P = 0.044, and P = 0.026, respectively). A mortality rate of 5.4% was recorded. Conclusion: Epistaxis of idiopathic origin occurring mostly in young males is the most common with most resolving on conservative management. Early hospital presentation, normal blood pressure at presentation and all management modalities were positive predictors of outcome in our patients.

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