Annals of African Medicine
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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 75-81

Prevalence and determinants of cognitive impairment in patients with chronic kidney disease: A cross-sectional study in Benin City, Nigeria

1 Department of Medicine, Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital, Okolobiri; Department of Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
2 Department of Medicine, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Oghenekaro Godwin Egbi
Dialysis Unit, Federal Medical Centre, PMB 502, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1596-3519.149877

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Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a public health concern and may be complicated by cognitive impairment (CI) contributing significantly to morbidity and poor prognosis. This hospital-based study aimed at determining the prevalence and the determinants of CI among CKD patients in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 190 CKD patients and a 100 healthy control subjects completed this cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic data and history of common clinical features of CKD were obtained with the use of interviewer administered semi-structured questionnaires. The six-item cognitive impairment test was used for assessment of cognitive function of patients and controls. Results: The prevalence of CI in Stages 3, 4, and 5 CKD patients were 24.0%, 41.6%, and 46.2%, respectively with overall prevalence of 35.3% while only 6.0% of controls had CI (P = 0.03). The most potent determinants of CI were low hematocrit (odds ratio [OR] =3.50), low serum bicarbonate levels (OR = 2.20), and high serum urea (OR = 2.11). Conclusion: CKD is associated with significant CI in Nigerian patients especially with progressive deterioration in renal function. There is a need for regular evaluation of CKD patients for cognitive deficits.

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