Annals of African Medicine
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Year : 2013  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 217-222

Type 2 diabetes mellitus and its risk factors among the rural Fulanis of northern Nigeria

1 Department of Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria
2 Department of Medicine, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria
3 Department of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Anas Sabir
Department of Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto 234
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1596-3519.122689

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Background: Information about diabetes mellitus (DM) from the rural populations in Nigeria, particularly among the rural Fulanis is limited. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in two rural districts of Sokoto State in Northern Nigeria. Using a modification of the WHO STEP wise approach to surveillance (STEPS) instrument, information on sociodemographic and anthropometric data was obtained. Either a casual or fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level was obtained in all subjects while oral glucose tolerance test was performed in a randomly selected group of 50 of the study participants. Results: Three hundred and ninety-three subjects participated in the study. The prevalence rates of DM, impaired fasting glycemia (IFG), and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) were 0.8, 6.9, and 8%, respectively. The mean (SD) FPG was higher in males (5.1 ± 0.6 mmol/L) than in females (4.9 ± 0.6 mmol/l), but not statistically significantly (P = 0.20). The major risk factors for DM among the rural Fulani were obesity and increasing age. Conclusion: The prevalence rates of DM and its principal risk factor obesity are low among the rural Nigerian Fulani. However, the prevalence of prediabetes is relatively high, a factor that may predispose to the future development of DM.

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