Annals of African Medicine
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Year : 2011  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 214-219

Clinicopathological pattern and management of retinoblastoma in Kano, Nigeria

1 Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria
2 Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Lawan Abdu
Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Bayero University Kano
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1596-3519.84705

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Background: The aim of the study is to evaluate the pattern of presentation and the mode of management of retinoblastoma seen in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano from 2001 to 2005. Materials and Methods: The clinic register was used to obtain the case folders of all children treated for retinoblastoma and this was used to obtain information on patient's age, sex, and clinical sign(s) at presentation such as orbital mass, leucocoria, proptosis, hyphaema without history of trauma, unexplained hypopyon, or uveitis. Also documented were X ray/B mode ultrasound scan findings, type of surgery performed, histological diagnosis, and adjuvant chemotherapy where applicable. Results: Forty-two patients were reviewed, 15 males and 27 females (M: F = 1.0: 1.8). The age ranged between 2 and 6 years and the peak age of presentation was 3 years in 22 patients (52%). The tumor was unilateral in 40 patients (95%) and bilateral in 2 patients (5%). Most of the patients (46%) presented late with fungating orbital mass. Other signs include leucocoria 22%, proptosis 19%, hyphema 7%, Hypopyon 2%, squint 2%, and buphthalmos 2%. Thirty-one patients (74%) had exenteration and enucleation was performed in 11 patients (26%). The tumor was histologically confirmed in 41 patients (98%) and was poorly differentiated in 23 patients (55%), 1 patient (2%) had toxocara granuloma. Thirty-nine patients required adjuvant chemotherapy and only 2 received 6 (full) courses. Conclusion: Retinoblastoma, a treatable tumor is characterized by late presentation as illustrated in our study. There is need to create public awareness and educate mothers on this tumor so that there is early diagnosis, appropriate referral, and prompt treatment. The goal is to increase number of children successfully cured of this disease in our environment.

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