Annals of African Medicine
Home About AAM Editorial board Ahead of print Current Issue Archives Instructions Subscribe Contact us Search Login 

Year : 2009  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 38-41 Table of Contents     

Urinary tract infection in children with nephrotic syndrome in Kano, Nigeria

Department of Paediatrics, Faculty Of Medicine Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria

Date of Acceptance17-Aug-2008
Date of Web Publication19-Sep-2009

Correspondence Address:
S I Adeleke
Department of Peadiatric, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, P. M. B. 3452, Kano
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1596-3519.55762

Rights and Permissions

Background : Nephrotic syndrome is a common childhood renal disorder; the prevalence of Urinary tract infection (UTI) in these patients is high. The increased prevalence of UTI are due to immunoglobulin loss, defective T cell function, presence of ascites and relative malnutrition. Objective: The study is to evaluate the prevalence of UTI , its etiological agents, antibiotics, sensitivity pattern and the outcome in children with nephrotic syndrome.
Methods : A prospective study of all patients with diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome from January 2003 to December 2006. Urine specimen were routinely obtained by clean catch method following careful preparation urethral orifices. The specimens were processed immediately. Five millimeters (5mml) loopful of the sample were inoculated on a blood agar and CLED agar plates. Identification of the organism to species level was by using stokes disc diffusion technique.
Results : Forty two patients were studied. The mean age and SEM for males was 8.2 + 0.5years and females with 7.9 + 0.8years. The age range was two to fifteen years UTI was caused predominantly by Staphylococcus aureus in 67.9%, Klebsiella species (17.9%) and Pseudomonas (14.2%). There was high invitro resistance of these organisms to nalidixic acid and ampicillin but sensitive to cefotaxime, ceftriazone and ciprofloxacin.
Conclusion : It is recommend that UTI should be sought for in patients with nephrotic syndrome and treatment should be prompt and appropriate.

   Abstract in French 

- plan : Syndrome néphrotique est un trouble rénale enfance courant ; la prévalence des voies urinaires infections (UTI) chez ces patients est élevée. La prévalence accrue de UTI sont dues à perte immunoglobuline, fonction de la cellule T défectueux, présence de l'ascite et la malnutrition relative.
Objectif : L'étude est d'évaluer la prévalence de la UTI, ses agents étiologique, les antibiotiques, motif de la sensibilité et le résultat chez les enfants avec néphrotique Syndrome.
Méthodes : Une étude éventuelle de tous les patients présentant le diagnostic du syndrome nephrotique entre le janvier 2003 à décembre 2006. Le spécimen d'urine ont été par habitude obtenus par la méthode propre de crochet suivant les orifices uréthraux de préparation soigneuse. Les spécimens ont été traités immédiatement. Cinq millimètres (5mml) de loopful de l'échantillon ont été inoculés des plats de sang agar et d'agar de CLED. L'identification de l'organization aux espèces de niveau était en employant charge la technique de diffusion de disque
Résultats : Quarante deux patients ont été étudiés. L'âge moyen et le SEM pour des mâles étaient 8.2 + 0.5years et femelles avec 7.9 + 0.8years. La tranche d'âge était de deux à quinze ans où UTI a été causé principalement près Staphylocoque doré dans 67.9%, espèces de klebsiella (17.9%) et pseudomonas (14.2%). Il y avait hauts résistance d'invitro de ces organizations à l'acide et à l'ampicilline nalidixic mais sensible au cefotaxime, au ceftriazone et au ciprofloxacin.
Conclusion : Il est recommandent qu'UTI devrait être cherché pour dans des patients présentant le syndrome nephrotique et le traitement devrait être prompt et approprié.

Keywords: Childhood, nephrotic syndrome, UTI, prevalence

How to cite this article:
Adeleke S I, Asani M O. Urinary tract infection in children with nephrotic syndrome in Kano, Nigeria. Ann Afr Med 2009;8:38-41

How to cite this URL:
Adeleke S I, Asani M O. Urinary tract infection in children with nephrotic syndrome in Kano, Nigeria. Ann Afr Med [serial online] 2009 [cited 2022 Jan 20];8:38-41. Available from:

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality, is one of the commonest renal diseases in childhood.[1],[2],[3],[4] The prevalence of UTI varies from 4% in neonatal period to 0.4% in the school and pre-school age children.[5] Nephrotic syndrome is another common childhood renal disorder among these group of patients, the prevalence of UTI is high.[6],[7] McVicar et al[7] reported a prevalence of 21% while Gulati et al[6] also reported a prevalence rate of 13.7%. The increased prevalence of UTI in patients with Nephrotic syndrome are due to immunoglobulin loss in urine,[8] defective T cell function, presence ascites and relative malnutrition.[9] UTI has also been reported to adversely influence the response of patients with nephrotic syndrome to corticosteroids.[10] However McVicar et al[7] did not find any relationship between UTI and response to steroid therapy. UTI has also been shown to have no role in the incidence of relapses in nephrotic syndrome.[7]

There are important differences in the epidemiology and histopathology of nephritic syndrome between Caucasians and Africans.[11] There is a high incidence of secondary nephrotic syndrome in Africans caused mainly by quartan malaria nephropathy.[12],[13] There has been few studies on the prevalence of UTI among patients with secondary nephrotic syndrome. The present study is to evaluate the prevalence of UTI, its etiological agents, invitro antibiotics sensitivity pattern of the organisms and outcome in patients with nephrotic syndrome.

   Patients and Methods Top

A prospective study of all the patients with a diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome admitted to the Paediatric Ward of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, from January 2003 to December, 2006. Age, Sex, results of urine culture, invitro antibiotic sensitivity pattern of isolated organisms were studied. Urine specimens from children with nephrotic syndrome were routinely obtained by clean catch method following careful preparation of the urethral orifices and were collected into sterile containers and promptly transported to the laboratory. The specimens where processed immediately. Five millimeters (5mml) loopful of the sample were inoculated on a blood agar and CLED agar plates. The blood agar plate was incubated aerobically for 18 - 24 hours at 37°c. Samples showing at least 105 bacterial colonies per milliliters of urine were considered to indicate significant bacteriuria. Identification of the organisms to species level was by standard biochemical methods and antimicrobial sensitivity test were carried out using stokes disc diffusion technique.[14]

The chi squared test with Yates correction and student's t test were used for statistical analysis.

   Results Top

Forty-two patients were studied. There were 24(57.1%) males and 18(42.9%) females, (a male to female ratio of 1.3:1). The mean age and SEM for males was 8.2 + 0.5 years compared with 7.9 + 0.8 years for females. The age range was two to fifteen years. The age and sex distribution of patients is as shown in [Table 1]. Twenty - eight (66.7%) had urinary tract infection. There were 16(38.1%) males and 12(28.6%) females.

Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 19(67.9%) patients, Klebsiella species in 5(17.9% patients) and Pseudomonas species in 4(14.2%) patients.

The invitro sensitivity patterns of isolated organisms to various antibiotics is as shown in [Table 2]. All the Staphylococcus aureus organisms and the coliform organism were 100 percent sensitive to ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime and ceftriazone. However, invitro sensitivity of the same organism to commonly used antibiotics including trimethoprim sulphamethoxazole ampicillin, and nitrofurantoin was 35 percent or less. Gentamycin and streptomycin offered 100% coverage for the Klebsiella and Pseudomonas species.

   Discussion Top

The present study shows that 66.7% of 42 patients with nephrotic syndrome had urinary tract infection, this observation of high prevalence of UTI among nephrotic syndrome patients have been reported by other workers.[6],[7],[15] Ibadin[15] reported a prevalence of 44.8% and this is similar to the present study. However, Gulati et al6 reported 13.8% and McVicar[7] reported a prevalence of 21%. The differences in the types of nephrotic syndrome seen in our region as compared to those seen in Caucasians may account for the varying prevalence rates of UTI in patients with nephrotic syndrome.[11] It is possible that impaired immunity associated with nephrotic syndrome is more marked in patients with secondary syndrome which is very common in the tropics.[16] About 45% of our patients were aged seven years and above which makes it unlikely to be primary nephrotic syndrome.[11]

In general population, post-neonatal UTI is relatively rare in males, sex did not influence the development of UTI.[10] The immune compromise associated with nephrotic syndrome is not sex discriminatory, this may be the reason to explain the high prevalence of UTI in males in our series this is also similar to the study by Ibadin[15] in (Southern Nigeria).

Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest organism comprising 67.9% of isolates, followed by Klebsiella (17.9%) and Pseudomonas (14.2%). This finding is similar to the study by Ibadin[15] who reported 54.3% of isolates were that of Staphylococcus aureus . However, Tsai et al1[7] who reported Gram-negative bacilli as the predominant cause of infections, including UTI, in patients with nephrotic syndrome. The sensitivities of Staphylococcus aureus organism to ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin were 100%; their sensitivities to commonly used antibiotics such as nalidixic acid and ampicillin were low. Gentamycin and streptomycin had 100%, coverage for the gram-negative organisms, but much lower rates to Staphylococcus aureus . There is an increasing trend of resistance by common bacteria to routine antibiotics, this had been noted in the region.[18],[19] The common practice of self medication, use of fake and substandard drugs and drug abuse could explain this unfortunate trend.

The high prevalence of UTI obtained in the present study and the long term complications warrant its aggressive treatment.[20] It is therefore advocated that routine urine cultures should be carried out on patients with nephrotic syndrome and appropriate antibiotics should also be used.

   References Top

1.Abdulrahman MB, Amir KIKM, Shamran IO. Urinary tract infection in children is still mismanaged problem. Emirates Med. J. 1992; 10:13-18.   Back to cited text no. 1      
2.Ross JH, Kay R. Paediatric urinary tract infection and reflux. Am Fam Physician. 1999; 59:1472.   Back to cited text no. 2      
3.Akinkugbe FM, Familusi JB, Akinkugbe OO. Urinary Tract Infection in infancy and early childhood. East Afr Med J. 1973; 50:12-20.   Back to cited text no. 3      
4.Yap Hui Kim. Disorders of the kidney and urinary tract. In: Stanfield P, Brueton M, Waterson T (eds). Disease of children in the subtropics and Tropics. London: Edward Arnold. 1994: 186.   Back to cited text no. 4      
5.Akinkugbe FM, Akinwolere OA, Ayewole AIM. A systematic bacteriaemia and other urinary abnormalities in children in Ibadan. Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics. 1988; 15:11-18.  Back to cited text no. 5      
6.Gulati S, Kher V, Gupta A, Arora P, Rai PK, Sharman RK. Spectrum of infection in nephrotic. Indain Journal of Pediatrics. 1995; 9:431-434.   Back to cited text no. 6      
7.McVicar M, Policastro A, Gort D. The incidence of urinary tract infection in nephrotic children. J Pediatr. 1973; 82:166-167.   Back to cited text no. 7      
8.Mc Lean RH, Forgen A, Bjorstein B. Decreased serum factor B associated with decreased opsonisation of E. Coli in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Pediatr Res 1977; 11: 910 - 6.   Back to cited text no. 8      
9.Adedoyin OT, Gbelee HOD, Adeniyi A. Childhood nephrotic syndrome in Ilorin. Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics. 2001; 28:68-72.   Back to cited text no. 9      
10.Eke FU. Nephrotic syndrome in Port-Harcourt. Clinical presentation and response to steroids. Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics. 1990; 17:59-63.   Back to cited text no. 10      
11.Coovadia HM, Adhikari M, Marogel L. Clinicopathological features of the nephrotic syndrome in South African children. Q J Med. 1979; 48:77-91.   Back to cited text no. 11      
12.Kibukamusoke JW, Hunt MSR, Wills WE. The nephrotic syndrome in Uganda and its association with quartan malaria. Q J Med. 1967; 36:393-408.   Back to cited text no. 12      
13.Hendrickse RG, Adeniyi A. Quartan malaria nephrotic syndrome in children. Kidney Int. 1979; 16:64-74.   Back to cited text no. 13      
14.Stokes EJ. Clinical Bacteriology in: Manual for Tropical countries. Vol. II Microbiology Cambridge University Press 1991; 194 - 196.   Back to cited text no. 14      
15.Ibadin MO. The prevalence of urinary tract infection in childhood nephrotic syndrome. Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics. 1997; 24:40-44.   Back to cited text no. 15      
16.Abdulrahman MB. The role of infectious agents in the aetiology and pathogenesis of childhood nephrotic syndrome in Africa J. Infect Dis. 1984; 8:100-109.   Back to cited text no. 16      
17.Tsai YK, Chen CIT, Tsai WS, Sheu JN. Complications of nephrotic syndrome in children J Formosa Med Assoc 191; 90: 555 - 559.   Back to cited text no. 17      
18.Obasaki MO, Erhabor EE. Trimethroprim - sulpha methoxazole resistance in Escherichia. Coli and Klebsiella spp urinary isolates. Afr J Med Sci. 1998; 17:133-140.   Back to cited text no. 18      
19.19. Adeleke SI, Asani MO, Belonwu RO, Ihesiolor GU. Urinary tract pathogens and antimicrobial sensitivity patterns in childhood urinary tract infection in Kano, Nigeria. Annals of Nigerian Medicine. 2005; 1:14-16.   Back to cited text no. 19      
20.Goonasekera CDA, Shah V, Wade AM, Barrat TM, Dillon M. Fifteen years follow up of rennin and blood pressure in reflux nephropathy. Lancet. 1996; 346:640-643.  Back to cited text no. 20      


  [Table 1], [Table 2]

This article has been cited by
Sonali Rastogi, Pathik Patel, Chirag D Shah
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
Ekta Dalal ., Nisha Chintan Upadhyay .
Indian Journal of Child Health. 2019; 6(1): 17
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
Vishwanath Vishwanath, Devdas Jaidev Mangalore, Bukelo Mario Joseph
Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences. 2015; 4(105): 17014
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
B Sreenivasa, C L Srinivasa Murthy, K Raghavendra, S P Basavanthappa, Rajath Pejaver, Hareesh Vardhan Jadala, Somarouthu Rajashekar
Indian Journal of Child Health. 2015; 02(01): 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Antimicrobial drug resistance among clinically relevant bacterial isolates in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review
S. J. Leopold,F. van Leth,H. Tarekegn,C. Schultsz
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Occurrence of infection among children with nephrotic syndrome during hospitalizations
Nephrology. 2012; 17(8): 681
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Occurrence of infection among children with nephrotic syndrome during hospitalizations
Wei, C.-C. and Yu, I.-W. and Lin, H.-W. and Tsai, A.C.
Nephrology. 2012; 17(8): 681-688
8 The clinical profile of infections in childhood primary nephrotic syndrome
Akl, K.F. and Al-lawama, M. and Khatib, F.A. and Sleiman, M.J. and Bulos, N.K.
Jordan Medical Journal. 2011; 45(4): 303-307
9 Authorship of a research publication
Oshikoya, K.A.
Annals of African Medicine. 2010; 9(2): 105
10 Authors reply
Adeleke, S.I.
Annals of African Medicine. 2010; 9(2): 105-106
11 Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from health care institutions in Ekiti and Ondo States, South-Western Nigeria
Esan, C.O., Famurewa, O., Lin, J., Shittu, A.O.
African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2009; 3(12): 962-968


    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  In this article
    Patients and Methods
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded241    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 11    

Recommend this journal