Annals of African Medicine
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Year : 2007  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 130-136

Recommendations for early diagnosis of chronic kidney disease

Department of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
I B Bosan
Department of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1596-3519.55719

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Background : Chronic kidney disease is an important component of chronic non– communicable diseases that are now of pandemic proportions and are the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Patients with reduced renal function represent a population not only at risk for progression of kidney disease and development of end stage renal disease (ESRD), but also at a greater risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Unfortunately, chronic kidney disease is under diagnosed and undetected resulting in lost opportunities for improving the clinical outcome. Early diagnosis with appropriate interventions will improve the quality of care of patients and prevent or delay progression to end stage renal disease. Our objective is to review existing recommendations and examine their adaptation to improving the quality of care for patients with chronic kidney disease in our environment. Method : Hand searches of published articles and electronic data were the primary sources. Only articles published in the English language were consulted excluding case reports, letters and conference abstracts. Articles of original data were searched from 1980 while review articles and expert committee reports were from 2000. Results : Early diagnosis of chronic kidney disease is crucial to improving the clinical outcome and reducing the incidence of end stage renal disease. Certain individuals with specific socio demographic and clinical factors are at increased risk of chronic renal disease. All individuals should be assessed as part of routine health encounter, to determine whether they are at increased risk of developing chronic kidney disease based on clinical and socio demographic factors. Individuals at increased risk of developing chronic kidney disease should undergo testing for markers of kidney damage, and to estimate the level of GFR.Individuals found to have chronic kidney disease should be evaluated and treated appropriately. A clinical action plan should be developed for each patient based on the type and stage of renal disease, co-morbid conditions, complications of the disease and risk factors for progression of renal disease or development of cardiovascular disease. Conclusion : Individuals at increased risk, but found not to have chronic kidney disease, should be advised to follow of risk factor reduction, if appropriate, and undergo repeat periodic evaluation.

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